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2000年(上)自考英语(一)试题及答案

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自考英语一
历年真题汇编

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

200610

 

 

2000年(上)自考英语(一)试题

I. Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each) 从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案。

1. Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields find      difficult to succeed in language learning.

A. them                         B. themselves                C. it                      D. itself

2. Television ads are short, but they are repeated over and over again      the audience sees and hears them many times.

A. in that                       B. so that                      C. as to                 D. so as

3. The Atlantic Ocean is only half as big as the Pacific,      it is still very large.

A. but                           B. and                          C. so                     D. therefore

4. No one has been able to prove that fish is       better for the brain than many other kinds of food.

A. some                        B. so                          C. as                     D. any

5. Tomatoes were once called love apples and were supposed to make those who ate them    in love.

A. fell                            B. feel                          C. fall                    D. felt

6. Washing food down with water as a      for chewing is not a good habit.

A. direction                    B. substitute                  C. possibility          D. resource

7. It is important to realize that the same technology      helps us may also harm us.

A. as                      B. that                          C. what                 D. when

8. Science began to develop rapidly when man laid      his wrong beliefs and began to seek true explanations.

A. out                           B. down                       C. aside                 D. outside

9. Remember, nothing hurts concentration      reading too slowly.

A. rather than                 B. as well as                 C. more than          D. instead of

10. More and more people are realizing that there is a       between heart disease and the way one lives.

A. correspondence        B. comparison               C. connection        D. consequence

II. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)

下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案。

Fear and its companion pain are two of the most useful things that men and animals possess, if they are properly used. If fire did not hurt when it burnt, children would play with it  11  their hands were burnt away.  12  , if pain existed but fear did not, a child would burn itself again and again, because fear would not  13  it to keep away from the fire that had burnt it before. Fear and pain are therefore two guards,  14  which men and animals might soon die out. In the first sentence we suggest that fear ought to be properly used. If,  15 , you never go out of your house  16  of the danger of being knocked down and killed in the street by a car, you are letting fear rule you too  17 . Even in your house you are not absolutely  18  : an airplane may crash on your house or you may get cancer! The important thing is not to let fear rule you, but  19  to use fear as your servant and guide. Fear will warn you of dangers;  20  you have to decide what action to take.

11. A. because              B. if                      C. though                            D. until

12. A. Generally            B. Probably            C. Similarly                   D. Consequently

13. A. warn                  B. request              C. manage                    D. protect

14. A. with                   B. without             C. for                           D. against

15. A. after all        B. by chance        C. for example                     D. in fact

16. A. regardless           B. because             C. in terms                   D. in front

17. A. little                    B. more                 C. many                       D. much

18. A. firm                    B. calm                 C. safe                         D. strong

19. A. instead                B. better                C. similarly                   D. further

20. A. then                    B. otherwise          C. likewise                    D. even

III. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)

从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案。

Passage One

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

The problem of leisure is new. Until very recent times people worked each day to the limit of their strength. Of course there were always a privileged (有特权的)few who had leisure; but most men had to work 12, 14, or even 16 hours a day, six days a week. As late as 1840 the average factory worker labored 72 hours a week. "Sunup to sundown" was the farmer's day, or as another phrase puts it, "from can to can't". Today, working less than a 40-hour week, people enjoy more leisure time. Hence, the wise use of leisure time has become an important problem for everyone, young or old. It is a particularly difficult problem for the sick, the aged, and those who have retired from earning a living. Those people have so much leisure that it is hard for them to find interesting and worthwhile ways to use it.

However short the work week becomes, work is still the most important part of life. We do not work to get leisure and the pleasures leisure brings us; rather, we use leisure wisely so that work itself can become awarding and enjoyable. The feeling of success at doing one's daily work—whether it is a job, maintaining a home, or going to school—depends largely on coming to it each day with fresh energy and active interest.

Leisure and recreation (消遣) go together, though they are not necessarily the same thing. "Recreation" has an obvious meaning. It is the kind of leisure activity that brings "re-creation" of strength and spirit. When one speaks of making good use of leisure, he means choosing recreational activities which contribute to health, growth, and spirit.

21. The phrase "from can to can't" in Paragraph 1 means      .

A. from beginning to end                                     B. from birth to death

C. from morning to night                                     D. from time to time

22. How to spend leisure time wisely is not a particularly difficult problem for people     .

A. who are very busy everyday                                   B. who are sick in bed

C. who are aged and in good health                       D. who have retired from work

23. How does the author look at work and leisure?

A. We work hard so that we can enjoy more leisure.

B. We enjoy leisure so that we can come back to work with fresh energy.

C. Leisure can bring us a lot of pleasures that work can not.

D. The success of work has little to do with how we spend our leisure time.

24. What is the relationship between leisure and recreation, according to the author?

A. Leisure and recreation are closely related.

B. Leisure and recreation are identical.

C. Recreation covers all kinds of leisure activities.

D. Recreation does not belong to any leisure activity.

25. From the passage we know that     .

A. leisure has been an old problem since ancient times

B. leisure can not be replaced as the most important part of life

C. our success in work is mostly determined by whether we use leisure wisely

D. good recreational activities contribute greatly to health, growth and spirit

Passage Two

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

Each nation has its own peculiar character which distinguishes it from others. But the peoples of the world have more points in common than points in which they differ. One type of person that is common in every country is the one who always tries to do as little as possible and to get as much as possible in return. His opposite, the man who is in the habit of doing more than is strictly necessary and who is ready to accept what is offered in return, is rare everywhere.

Both these types are usually unconscious of their character. The man who avoids effort is always talking about his "rights": he appears to think that society owes him a pleasant, easy life. The man who tries to do as little as he can is always full of excuses: if he has neglected to do something, it was because he had a headache, or the weather was too hot—or too cold—or because he was prevented by bad luck. At first, other people, such as his friends and his employer, generously accept his stories; but soon they realize what kind of person he is. In the long run he deceives only himself. When his friends become cool towards him and he fails to make progress in his job, he is surprised and hurt. He blames everyone and everything except himself. He feels that society is failing in its duties towards him, and that he is being unjustly treated.

26. The central idea of Paragraph 1 is that      .

A. each nation is peculiar enough to enable us to distinguish it from others

B. the peoples of the world are as alike as they are different

C. the peoples of the world have more similarities than differences

D. those who do more than is strictly necessary are common in every country

27. According to Paragraph 1, the man who does more than is required     .

A. is ready to accept what the society offers him        B. expects nothing in return for his work

C. feels that he is under heavy debt                           D. thinks this makes his life easy

28. Those who try to do as little as possible     .

A. envy others' good luck                                         B. are good story-tellers

C. supply false reasons for their lack of responsibility  D. think that their opposites owe them a pleasant life

29. The phrase "in the long run" (Paragraph 3) is closest in meaning to "    ."

A. in practice                       B. in the end                 C. in effect                   D. in no time

30. It can be inferred from the passage that people who cheat     .

A. will be unjustly treated                                         B. will cheat only themselves eventually

C. will change their behavior                                     D. will get surprised by their own stories

Passage Three

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

The government may control prices when there is a problem such as rapidly increasing rents or a rise in the cost of living. When the government controls prices, there is no longer a normal relationship between the price of a product and the quantity consumers will buy. Government controls may help in an emergency(紧急情况). However, some economists believe that controls can have negative effects over a long period of time.

In cities with rent control, the city government sets the maximum rent that a landlord (房主) can charge for an apartment. Supporters of rent control argue that it protects people who are living in apartments. Their rent cannot increase; therefore, they are not in danger of losing their homes. However, the critics (评论者) say that after a long time, rent control may have negative effects. Landlords know that they cannot increase their profits. Therefore, they invest in other businesses where they can increase their profits. They do not invest in new buildings which would also be rent-controlled. As a result, new apartments are not built. Many people who need apartments cannot find any. According to the critics, the end result of rent control is a shortage of apartments in the city.

Economic theory predicts the results of economic decisions such as decisions about rent control, price control and the minimum wage. The predictions may be correct only if "other things are equal."

Economists do not agree on some of the predictions. They also do not agree on the value of different decisions. Some economists support a particular decision while others criticize it. Economists do agree, however, that there are no simple answers to economic questions.

31. According to Paragraph 1, price control ____.

A. does more harm than good                                   B. is good in every sense

C. is necessary but harmful in the long term               D. should be avoided

32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that ____.

A. thanks to rent control, it would be easier for many to find apartments

B. landlords may take back their apartments if the rent is too low

C. the tighter the rent control is, the less new apartments will be built

D. landlords will not invest in other businesses after price control is approved by the government

33. Which of the following do all economists agree on?

A. Controls can have negative effects over a long period of time.

B. The government must take measures to control rent increase.

C. The maximum rent system protects people who don't have their own houses.

D.Economic questions are difficult to deal with.

34. The attitude of the author to price control is ____.

A. subjective                        B. objective                   C. indifferent         D. supportive

35. The purpose of this passage is to ____.

A. argue                              B. persuade                   C. analyze              D. describe

IV. Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)

将下列汉语单词译成英语。

36.广场 n.  s                                        37. 珍贵的 ad. p             

38. 口袋 n.  p                                        39 .假装 v.  p            

40. 各种各样的 ad.  v                           41.挑战 n.  c             

42. 完美的 ad.  p                                 43.想象 v.  i            

44. 包含 v.  c                                      45.心脏 n.  h        

46. 直径 n.  d                                     47.海滩 n.  b        

48. 诚实的 ad .  h                               49.坚持 v.  i          

50. 法官;裁判员 n. j                               51. 最少 ad. l        

52. 信息;口信 n.  m                           53. 省略 v.  o      

54. 律师 n. l                                           55. 操作 v.  o             

V. Word Form (10 points, 1 point for each) 将括号中的各词变为适当形式填入空白。

56. Sometimes information in the long-term memory      (be) hard to remember.

57. In the 1600's, travelers from Europe      (bring) back diamonds from India.

58. Insurance fundamentals can      (understand) by those willing to study them.

59. He wanted the letter      (mail) at once.

60. We become used to      (see) blood on the news on television, or in full color in newspapers and magazines.

61. As a generally      (accept) medium of exchange, money rules out the need for the direct exchange of one item for another.

62. Almost everyone spends a considerable amount of present moments      (worry) about the future.

64. Well-organized material is      (well) remembered than jumbled information.

65. If we      (not have) air, there would be no sound.

VI. Translation from Chinese into English (15 points) 将下列各句译成英语。

66. 对初学者来说,用英语思维比说英语更难。

67.据说有些吃鹿肉的原始人能跑得象鹿一样飞快。

68.要是昨天他早一点回家,他的女儿就不会把他的手表拆了。

69.要找到与你观点相同的学生并不容易。

70.在你的朋友中有多少人从来未犯过法呢?

VIITranslation from English into Chinese (15 points) 将下列短文译成汉语。

Many of the plants and animals from which our food comes can produce themselves quite well without our help. Fish, for example, live and breed according to their own life pattern. Human "producers" then come with nets and fishing poles to take the fish from the water.

In our specialized world, however, it is not always possible to let our food grow in its own way. A relatively small number of people are responsible for producing large quantities of food. In order to perform such a function effectively, it is necessary for them to raise cattle and grow crops in a fairly concentrated area.

Fishing, livestock(家畜) breeding, and fruit, vegetable, and grain growing are among the more commonly known food-production industries.

 

2000年(下)自考英语(一)试题

IVocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each) 从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案。

1. Death and taxes are two things in life that every American can be sure     .

      [A]of                [B]for                        [C]at               [D]with

2. The Atlantic Ocean is over 6,000 km     where Christopher Columbus crossed it.

   [A]deep          [B]wide              [C]long             [D]across

3. Two men were sitting in a doctor's waiting room. "What are you in here     ?" asked one.

   [A]for                 [B]to                [C]on              [D]about

4. It is a good idea for parents to monitor the      as well as the kind of television that their preschool child watches.

   [A]number             [B]size                 [C]amount           [D]program

5. In the garage sale, eager buyers bought all but 50 of the unwanted items in one weekend, leaving the Ericksons $442     .

      [A]rich               [B]better             [C]richer           [D]good

6. Many people have made a      to a physical fitness program so as to maintain good health.

   [A]decision             [B]commitment     [C]contribution      [D]difference

7. Many species of animals are under the threat of      because of the rapid change of natural environment.

   [A]guns               [B]existence           [C]hunters             [D]extinction

8. The knowledge and power of the Information Age will be within reach not just of the few, ____ of every classroom, every library in the near future.

      [A]but                   [B]instead              [C]because            [D]then

9. Generally, the children stay in the nuclear family       they grow up and marry.

[A]although  [B]as                     [C]until                 [D]where

10. The difference between the baby twins is so small      it is even hard for their Mum to tell.

      [A]as                    [B]that                  [C]since                [D]if

II. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)

下列短文中有10个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案。

Children are curious about the world around them. For example, they want to know  11  their hearts beat. They want to know why the ocean water  12  salty.  13  children grow up, they become curious about different kinds of things. When they are babies, they are interested in the parts of their bodies and in the smiles of their mothers.  14  they become interested in the physical world around them the plants, the animals, the sky. Later, they become interested in the things  15  people have made: wheels, bicycles, cars. And when they are adults, their curiosity  16 . Sometimes this curiosity leads to a  17  in science. Scientists spend their lives  18  to find out about the world.  19  who work with the earth sciences study the earth, the oceans, and the skies.  20  scientists who study living work with the biological sciences. A third group of scientists study the physical sciences, e.g. physics, chemistry.

11. [A]what                         [B]how                        [C]which                      [D]when

12. [A]feels                         [B]smells                      [C]tastes                      [D]looks

13. [A]As                            [B]Since                       [C]As soon as               [D]As long as

14. [A]so                      [B]Even                        [C]Thus                       [D]Then

15. [A]that                           [B]whom                      [C]why                        [D]in which

16. [A]exists                        [B]stops                       [C]continues                 [D]decreases

17. [A]work                        [B]research                   [C]field                        [D]career

18. [A]try                            [B]to try                       [C]trying                      [D]tried

19. [A]That                         [B]This                        [C]Those                      [D]These

20. [A]Other                        [B]Another                   [C]Others                            [D]The other

III. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)

从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案。

Passage One

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

For a clearer picture of what the student knows, most teachers use another kind of examination in addition to objective tests. They use "essay" tests, which require students to write long answers to broad, general questions such as the following: "Mention several ways in which Benjamin Franklin has influenced the thinking of people in his own country and in other parts of the world."

One advantage of the essay test is that it reduces the element of luck. The student cannot get a high score just by making a lucky guess. Another advantage is that it shows the examiner more about the student's ability to put facts together into a meaningful whole. It should show how deeply he has thought about the subject. Sometimes, though, essay tests gave disadvantages, too. Some students are able to write rather good answers without really knowing much about the subject, while other students who actually know the material have trouble expressing their ideas in the essay form.

Besides, in an essay test the student's score may depend upon the examiner's feelings at the time of reading the answer. If he is feeling tired or bored, the student may receive a lower score than he should. Another examiner reading the same answer might give it a much higher mark. Because of this, the objective test gives each student a fairer chance, and of course it is easier and quicker to score.

Whether an objective test or an essay test is used, problems arise. When some objective questions are used along with some essay questions, however, a fairly clear picture of the student's knowledge can usually be obtained.

21. What may have been discussed in the previous paragraphs?

[A]The essay test.                                            [B]How teachers test their students.

[C]How students write their essays.                   [D]The objective test.

22. The essay test is preferred because     .

[A] it shows more about the student's understanding of the subject

[B] it tests the student's knowledge of the material as well as his expression of ideas

[C] It gives each student a fairer chance

[D] Its scoring may be influenced by the examiner's feelings

23. The word 'this' (Line 4, Para. 3) refers to the fact that     .

[A] students may receive a lower score in an essay test

[B] another examiner usually gives the answer a higher mark

[C] different examiners may give the same essay different scores

[D] the objective test gives each student a fairer chance

24. According to the passage, which of the following statements about the objective test is NOT true?

[A] It is more objective than the essay test in terms of scoring.

[B] It allows the student to guess the correct answer without really knowing the material.

[C] It shows the student's ability to think about difficult problems.

[D] It is easy and quick to score.

25. According to the author, an ideal test should be     .

[A]an objective test                                    [B]an essay test

[C]a combination of the two                              [D]something new

Passage Two

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

Around the world two thirds of the people are farmers. Most of them engage in subsistence farming. This means that they raise plants and animals to furnish their families with food and other supplies. They consume their varied output and have little to sell or to trade for other goods. Subsistence farms were common in the United States at one time, but there are few such farms today.

Two thirds of American farmers practice commercial farming. Commercial farms produce about 97 per cent of the country's agricultural goods. These farms are operated much like other industries. The members of the farm family produce the commodities (商品) that will be sent to the market. They sell their products and buy the things they need.

Some commercial farms are big factories in the field. They may be owned by a company or by an individual as an investment. Most American farms, however, are still operated by families. A farmer may own or rent his land.

In a country as large as the United States, farms vary widely in climate, land surface, soil, water supply, convenience to market, and other characteristics. Different regions may have different kinds of specialized farms. Specialized farmers concentrate on the kind of farming best suited to the land and climate, to their technical skills, and to the money they invest in the farm.

However, no region is limited to a single type of farm. Indeed few farms are limited to one crop or commodity. Where output is varied and no one kind of crop or commodity produces more than half of a farm's income, it is classified as a general farm. The general farmer grows varied crops to use the different kinds of soils or surfaces on his land and to employ his time and machinery most efficiently.

26. Subsistence farmers     .

[A] grow crops for their families' own use                 [B] sell a lot of their products for money

[C] trade their varied output for other goods        [D] use their agricultural products as commodities

27. Subsistence farms      .

[A] are very popular in the United States now

[B] are still common in many parts of the world

[C] consist of two thirds of the total number of the farms in the world today

[D] used to be the major form of farming in the world

28. American commercial farms     .

[A] furnish the country with two thirds of the food its people need

[B] are run in much the same way as other industries

[C] are all owned by different companies

[D] never rent their land for farming

29. A specialized farm is characterized by     .

[A] its especially large size                                        [B] its independence of the market

[C] its concentration on a single type of farming        [D] its special way of operation

30. A farm is classified as general if     .

[A] more than half of its income comes from varied crops

[B] it is limited to a single type of farm

[C] it employs different kinds of machines

[D] the soils or surfaces of its land are used most efficiently

Passage Three

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

No one knows for sure why birds migrate (定期迁徙). One theory of migration says that ancient birds of the northern part of the earth were forced southward during the Ice Age, when ice covered large parts of Europe, Asia and North America. As the ice melted, the birds came back to their homelands, spent the summer, and then went south again in winter. Gradually, these comings and goings became habits, and birds now migrate though much of the ice has gone.

Another theory proposes that the ancient home of all modern birds was the tropic areas. There lived so well that the region became overcrowded. Many species had to move northward. During the summer, these birds found plenty of room and food. In winter, however, food became scarce and they had to return to the south.

A newer theory is that increasing daylight stimulates certain glands () in the bird's body and prepares it for migration. One scientist is able to make birds migrate in midwinter by exposing them for two months to artificial daylight. Recoveries of marked birds indicate that they fly north as soon as they are set free. The conclusion is that the urge to migrate is determined by changes in the bird's body which take place under seasonal changes in the length of daylight.

This theory would account for the fact that not all birds migrate at the same time. Each species seems to have its own schedule. The theory would also account for the regular time and routes of migration. Birds arrive at a given place year after year.

Unfavorable weather delays them only a few days. Total hours of daylight, rather than weather, start them on the way.

How birds find their way to the same place year after year and why they follow their own particular route are still mysteries. They evidently do not follow known landmarks (地面标志), for many young birds migrate alone without the help of experienced adults.

31. We can conclude from the first paragraph that     .

[A] during the Ice Age, the whole Europe was covered with ice

[B] the south used to be the homelands of all birds

[C] scientists can confidently explain why birds migrate now

[D] migration of birds can be explained by the change of ice on earth

32. The birds mentioned in the third paragraph fly north in midwinter because     .

[A] they are specially trained by a scientist                 [B] they are affected by seasonal changes

[C] there is a change in their body temperature           [D] they are exposed to extra daylight

33. The phrase "account for" (line2, Para. 4) most probably means     .

[A]indicate                    [B]explain                     [C]prove                      [D]provide

34. Which of the following can NOT be inferred from the passage?

[A] Birds do not migrate at the same time.

[B] Birds usually follow regular routes of migration.

[C] Each species has a special reason for migration.

[D] Birds migrate to their own particular places every year.

35.The best title for the passage is     .

[A]Different Accounts of Migration                           [B]Migration and Weather

[C]New Discovery of Bird Migration                         [D]Routes of Bird Migration

IV. Word Spelling (10 point, 1 point for two words)

将下列汉语单词译成英语。首字母后的每条短线上只写一个字母。

36.微小的ad. t                                         37. 职业 n.  p                 

38. 机密 n.  s                                        39. 尊敬 n.  r           

40. 邀请 v.  i                                         41. 绝望 v.  d            

42. 勇气 n.  c                                      43. 罪犯 n.  c              

44. 昂贵的 ad. e                                  45. 争吵n.  q            

46. 匆忙n.  h                                          47. 足够的 ad. s                 

48. 残忍的ad. c                                        49. 奇迹n.  w          

50. 平坦的 ad. f                                         51. 失败 n.  f           

52. 消除v.  r                                          53. 暂停n.  p        

54. 允许 v. p                                       55. 博物馆 n. m           

V. Word Form (10 points, 1 point for each)

将括号中的各词变为适当形式填入空白。

56. Sometimes ocean currents      (call) "rivers in the sea".

57. The most common use of telecommunication satellites has been for      (transmit) telephone calls.

58. Do you know why people are unwilling       (discuss) insurance?

59. This is another way of saying that man's understanding is always       (little) than perfect.

60. You needn't have left the door      (unlock) since John has got the key.

61. Last summer I was told by a colleague that I would cool more quickly if I       (drink) steaming hot tea rather than a cold drink.

62.What can he       (do) at this time of the day?

63. If I       (leave) little bit earlier, I would have caught the plane.

64. Traditionally, all the members of an       (extend) family lived in the same area.

65. You       (not change) much since we met last year.

VI. Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each) 将下列各句译成英语。

66.研究表明大量喝酒的人更易得心脏病。

67.解决实际问题的办法事先不能预见。

68.如果当时你听从我的劝告就不会陷入困境。

69.大多数单亲父母发现独自照顾家庭有困难。

70.是现代技术使我们走向成功。

VII. Translation form English into Chinese (15 points) 将下列短文译成汉语。

When we work—and also when we play—we use up energy. The energy may be physical or mental or a combination of the two.

When our work or play is prolonged, we become tired and want to stop and rest or change to some other activity. If we do not stop, we become gradually less efficient.

If we set someone at a job and keep him at it continuously without rest, ultimately he will break down and be unable to go on.

If rest intervals or changes of activity are introduced, the person will be able to work for a much longer period of time.

Efficiency, then, seems to be mainly a matter of the distribution of work and rest periods. In ordinary life, we work during the day, and sleep at night, year in and year out.

 

2001年(上)自考英语(一)试卷

第一部分  选择题(共50分)

I. Vocabulary and Structure 10 points, 1 point for each

从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答案卡上将相应的字母涂黑。

1. Some people who are successful language learners find it difficult to         in other fields.

A. succeed               B. result                       C. achieve                    D. score

2. It was _______ many centuries later that the ancient Greeks placed the science of map-making on a sound footing.

A. not                      B. until                         C. not until                   D. until not

3. Heart surgery causes the costs of general hospital care to ______.

A. raise                    B. arise                         C. rise                          D. arouse

4. Keep in _____ that all people are different and some may progress faster than others.

A. head                    B. brain                        C. heart                        D. mind

5. He keeps on with physical training in winter _______ cold it is.

A. whatever             B. no matter how          C. whether or not          D. although

6.We often hear old people wishing they _______ young again.

A. are                      B. were                        C. had been                  D. will be

7. Without air, there would be no atmosphere to protect us ______ the sun's deadly rays.

A. from                   B. under                       C. to                                   D. in   

8. The old movie reminded them _____ the wonderful time they had spent together.

A. to                        B. for                           C. in                                   D. of

9. Up to now there have been many explanations _____ the cause of sleepwalking.

A. in view of            B. in line with                C. apart from                D. as to

10. More and more Chinese people are _______ wildlife conservation and environmental protection.

A. certain of             B. concerned about        C. capable of                D. crazy about

II. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)

下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文的要求选出最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应字母涂黑。

Faces, like fingerprints, are unique. Did you  11  wonder how it is possible for us to  12  people? Even a skilled writer probably could not describe all the  13  that make one face different from another. Yet a very young child —  14  an animal, such as a cat — can learn to recognize faces. We all  15  this ability for granted.

We also tell people  16  by observing how they behave. When we talk about someone's personality, we mean the  17  in which he or she acts, speaks, thinks or feels that  18  that individual different from others.

Like the human face, human personality is very complex. But describing someone's personality  19  words is somewhat easier than  20  his face.

11. A. sometimes                  B. ever                         C. always                            D. anytime

12. A. spot                           B. locate                       C. know                       D. recognize

13. A. features                     B. symptoms                C. distinctions               D. functions

14. A. or even                      B. and also                    C. and then                   D. and too

15. A. have                        B. take                         C. use                          D. regard

16. A. about                         B. apart                      C. from                        D. with

17. A. attitudes                     B. means                      C. ways                       D. patterns

18. A. has made                   B. are making               C. is made                    D. make

19. A. for                            B. to                                   C. in                                   D. beyond

20.A. describe               B. describing                 C. to describe               D. description of

III. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)

从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。

Passage one

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

Many visitors find the fast pace at which American people move very troubling. One's first impression is likely to be that everyone is in a rush. City people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going and are very impatient if they are delayed even for a brief moment.

At first, this may seem unfriendly to you. But drivers will rush you; storekeepers will be in a hurry as they serve you; people will push past you as they walk along the street. You will miss smiles, brief conversations with people as you shop or dine away from home. Do not think that because Americans are in such a hurry they are unfriendly. Often, life is much slower outside the big cities, as is true in other countries as well.

Americans who live in cities such as New York, Chicago, or Los Angeles, often think that everyone is equally in a hurry to get things done; they expect others to "push back", just as city people do in Tokyo, Singapore or Paris, for example. But when they discover that you are a stranger, most Americans become quite kind and will take great care to help you. Many of them first came to the city as strangers and they remember how frightening a new city can be. If you need help or want to ask a question, choose a friendly-looking person and say," I am a stranger here. Can you help me?" Most people will stop, smile at you, and help you find your way or answer your questions. But you must let them know that you need help. Otherwise they are likely to pass you by, not noticing that you are new to the city and in need of help. Occasionally, you may find someone too busy or perhaps too rushed to give you aid. If this happens, do not be discouraged; just ask someone else. Most Americans enjoy helping a stranger.

21. Many people who first visit the United States will find that ______.

A. America is a highly developed country

B. American city people seem to be always in a rush

C. the fast pace in American life often causes much trouble

D. Americans are impatient and unfriendly people

22. When the author says "You will miss smiles", he means _______.

A. you will fail to notice that Americans are pleasant and happy

B. you will be puzzled why Americans are pleasant and happy

C. you will feel that Americans do not seem very friendly

D. you will find that Americans don't have much sense of humor

23. In the author's opinion, _______.

A. it is true that life in New York is much faster than that in any other city

B. people living outside big cities are lazy and miserable

C. most American people enjoy living in the suburbs of big cities

D. those who are busy are not necessarily unfriendly

24. The author mentions big cities such as Tokyo, Singapore and Paris _______.

A. to show that city people all over the world have a lot in common

B. to let his readers be aware that they are some of the world's biggest cities

C. to illustrate their difference from American cities

D. because they are some of the cities that attract visitors most

25. If you say to an American that you are a stranger there, most probably be will ____.

A. offer his help                                        B. stop smiling at you

C. help you find the way                            D. reply that he is pleased to meet you

Passage Two

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

Mark felt that it was time for him to take part in his community, so he went to the neighborhood meeting after work. The area's city councilwoman (女议员) was leading a discussion about how the quality of life was decreasing. The neighborhood faced many problems. Mark looked at the charts taped to the walls. There are charts for parking problems, crime, and for problems in vacant buildings. People were supposed to suggest solutions to the councilwoman.

It was too much for Mark. "The problems are too big," he thought. He turned to the man next to him and said, "I think this is a waste of my time. Nothing I could do would make a difference here."

Mark thought some more on his way to the bus stop. "People should just take care of themselves," he decided. "That's enough to do, I can't take on all the problems of the world."

As he neared the bus stop, Mark saw a woman carrying a grocery bag and baby. She was trying to unlock her car, but she didn't have a free hand. As Mark got closer, her other child, a little boy, suddenly darted into the street. The woman tried to reach for him, but as she moved, her bag shifted and groceries started to fall out. Mark ran to take the boy's arm and led him back to his mother. Then he picked up the groceries while the woman smiled in relief. "Thanks!" she said. "You've got great timing!"

"Just being neighborly," Mark said. As he rode home, he glanced at the walls of the bus. On one of them was "Small acts of kindness add up." Mark smiled and thought, "Maybe that's a good place to start." 

26. It is known from the passage that ______.

A. Mark played an active part in community activities

B. the city councilwoman was responsible for the falling of life quality

C. visual aids were used to display the seriousness of problems

D. many people were discouraged by the many problems facing them

27. In Mark's opinion, _______.

A. nobody was so able as to solve the problems          B. he was not in the position to solve such problems

C. many people were too selfish to think about others D. he already had more than enough work to do

28. The word "darted" in paragraph 5 can be best replaced by ______.

A. "walked"                         B. "marched"                C. "wandered"               D. "dashed"

29. What is the implication of the words on the bus wall?

A. You should be kind to your neighbors and they will treat you the same way.

B. Everyone can play his own part to make things better.

C. All small acts will add up to kindness.

D. It's a small act to help a person in need.

30. The passage is mainly about ______.

A. how individuals can help make a difference     B. running a neighborhood meeting to solve its problems

C. citizens' reactions to the problems they face    D. solving problems through group action
Passage Three

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

In every society it is necessary to have a general system of laws to ensure justice. Laws are designed to make certain that people's rights are protected and that people respect each other's rights. Sometimes, however, laws are passed which are specific to a time or situation. For example, a town in Indiana once passed a law making it illegal to shoot open a can of food. Apparently, some gun - carrying citizens forgot their can openers and naturally enough, used their guns to do the job. This disturbed other citizens, and endangered their lives, so a law was passed to prevent it.

Specific laws sometimes remain in existence long after the problem has disappeared. The laws then seem strange. For example, the Indiana law was no longer necessary when citizens stopped carrying guns and using them as can openers. Since the law was no longer needed, what once made sense now seems like nonsense.

Sometimes laws designed to serve a good purpose were passed but somehow these became mixed up in their wording. As a result, the laws don't make sense. In one state there is a law which says that it is "illegal to move or to attempt to move a motor vehicle." Obviously, a massive traffic jam would occur if everyone suddenly obeyed that law. But no one does, of course, because the intention of the law was not to prevent owners from moving their own cars. It was to prevent people from moving (stealing) other people's cars.

It is often harder to repeal (废止) a law than to pass one, so many of these old laws remain in existence. Because they no longer fit the way people live or because the problem no longer exists, these laws are ignored. Everyone understands that and life goes on. Thus, laws that once made very good sense, now seem like nonsense.

31. According to the passage, laws are designed for the purpose of _____.

A. protecting people's rights                                    B. making people respect each other

C. preventing gun-carrying                                      D. punishing criminals

32. The word "job" in paragraph 1 refers to ______.

A. working                  B. shooting                   C. preventing gun- carrying          D. disturbing others

33. The author used the Indiana law as an example to explain ______.

A. how some laws are passed and changed               B. how people in Indiana open cans

C. why some laws may seem strange                       D. why people in Indiana no longer use their guns

34. What's the problem with the law concerning motor vehicles?

A. It leads to traffic jams.                                        B. It is not clearly written.

C. It is not designed to serve a good purpose.            D. It has been out of date.

35. We can conclude from the passage that _______.

A. a law system is necessary for every society

B. some laws that don't make sense may also get passed

C. it is more difficult to change the old law than pass a new one

D. some laws may seem strange as time passes

第二部分    非选择题(共50分)

IV. Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)

将下列汉语单词译成英语并写在答卷纸上。作为提示,每个词的词类和第一个字母以及用短线表示的其余字母数,已给出。

36.普遍的 a. w                                        46.刺激   v. s       

37.贸易   n. t                                                 47.诚实的 a. h           

38.占领   v. o                                               48.开关   n. s           

39.城市的 a. u                                                49.著名的 a. f           

40.平均   n. a                                             50.独立的 a. i                     

41.数量   n. q                                           51.混合   v. m     

42.装饰   v. d                                             52.说服   v. p              

43.精确的 a. p                                              53.管子   n. p       

44.预算   n. b                                              54.表扬   v. p          

45.题目   n. t                                                  55.第三   num. t         

V. Word spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)

将括号中的各词变为适当形式填入空白。答案写在答卷纸上。

56. Experiments have to be made under _______ (care) controlled conditions.

57. Garage - sale items usually _________ (price) at a very small part of their original cost.

58. The part of the moon _________ (face) away from the sun appears dark.

59. He was the first to draw a map that _________ (base) on all available knowledge, rather than on guess or imagination.

60. By the time we got to the airport the plane _________ (take) off.

61. A plant that grows more than three _________ (foot) is unusual in that area.

62. In 1964, the Olympic Games in Tokyo became the first program ________ (transmit) via satellite.

63. But for the traffic jam, we ________ (will, arrive) on time.

64. The manager insisted on _________ (treat) as an ordinary employee.

65. Please send us the goods at your _________ (early) convenience.

VI. Translation from Chinese into English (15 point, 3 points for each)

将下列各句译成英语并将答案写在答卷纸上。

66. 正是闪电造成去年那场森林火灾。

67. 空气污染直接危害了人们的健康。

68. 这些专家们整个上午都在讨论这个问题。

69.许多美国人抱怨政府在这些项目上花钱太多。

70.好奇心和想象力常常被认为是成功的关键。

VII. Translation from English into Chinese (15 points) 将下列短文译成汉语并将答案写在答卷纸上。

Many Americans find silence uncomfortable. They will talk continually to fill any pause in a conversation, even if it lasts only for a moment. If you are silent for long periods of time, Americans will do their best to include you in the conversation. They may ask you if you are feeling well or if there is anything they can do to help you. However, if Americans disagree with what you are saying, they may remain quiet. This does not necessarily mean that they agree with you; often it only means that they consider it impolite to argue further.

 

2001年(下)自考英语(一)试题

第一部分(选择题,共50分)
Ⅰ. Vocabulary and Structure
10 points,1 point for each
从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。
1. American people are not very happy on April 15, when the federal taxes are ______.
[A] high                  [B] near                        [C] close               [D] due
2. Some language learners find _______ difficult to succeed in other fields of science.
[A] that                   [B] so                          [C] it                     [D] them
3. Animals can live only on ______ plants have already turned from inorganic to vegetable matter.
[A] that                   [B] which                     [C] what               [D] how
4. A few years ago, the belief became general ________ orange juice and milk should never be drunk at the same meal.
[A] that                   [B] so that                    [C] and that           [D] now that
5. The real difference between plants and animals _______ in what they do, and not in what they seem to be.
[A] is laid                [B] is lain                      [C] lays                 [D] lies
6. We now know that about ________ all the kinds of seaweed are animals.
[A] one fourth          [B] one fourth of           [C] one four of      [D] the one fourth
7. Scientists could see many things that most people would ________ to see.
[A] feel                   [B] fail                         [C] fall                  [D] fill
8. The children stay in the nuclear family ________ they grow up and marry.
[A] because             [B] once                       [C] after                [D] until
9. Sometimes problems grow out of a ________ observation.
[A] charge               [B] change                    [C] chance            [D] choice
10. Eager buyers bought all _______ 50 of the items in one weekend.
[A] but                    [B] yet                         [C] out                  [D] beyond
Ⅱ. Cloze Test
10 points,1 point for each)下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。
    How will the present-day science develop in the near future, i.e. the next decade or so?
    To 11 with, we can expect 12 science to produce a vast increase in entirely new products of all 13 .These will range from light-weight, high-strength materials for 14 in the many specialized branches of engineering, 15 drugs and chemicals with a greatly-increased selectivity 16 can be used in medicine and agriculture. However, in this 17 case in particular, it may be predicted 18 the wide-spread application and combination of new and more complex products will give 19 to unexpected inter-reactions or side-effects. For this reason, greatly intensified programmes of research will be required in 20 to discover and eliminate the harmful results of such combination.
11. [A] talk                     [B] begin               [C] introduce                [D] research
12. [A] applied                [B] social               [C] nuclear                   [D] economic
13. [A] lines                    [B] levels               [C] kinds                      [D] values
14. [A] work                  [B] help                 [C] use                         [D] shift
15. [A] to                       [B] for                  [C] in                           [D] with
16. [A] it                        [B] what                [C] whether                  [D] which

17. [A] late                     [B] later                 [C] latter                      [D] last
18. [A] why                    [B] that                 [C] which                     [D] whether
19. [A] way                    [B] fall                  [C] light                       [D] rise
20. [A] general                [B] order               [C] question                  [D] nature
Ⅲ. Reading Comprehension30 points,2 points for each
从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。Passage One
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
    One of the advantages of being self-employed is that the profit the business makes belongs to the owner. If the self-employed person is successful in business, he or she has the chance to earn a great deal of money and even become wealthy. The profit earned by a self-employed person is the reward for his or her effort, ability, and creativity. Thus, a second advantage of being self-employed is that a person's intelligence and abilities have a direct effect on his or her earnings. People who have outstanding abilities or intelligence often find they can earn far more through self-employment than they can through working as an employee. A third advantage of being self-employed is that a person can control both the number of hours worked and the hours of work. While not all self-employed people are completely free to choose whatever hours they want to work, most of them have more control over this area than do the people who for salaries or wages.
    As with most things in life, being self-employed is not without problems. First, being one's own boss places the responsibility for success directly on that individual's shoulders. Abilities and intelligence will be put to the test. Everyone has some weaknesses and is less capable in some things than in others. These weaknesses will affect how successful a self-employed person is. Second, though the self-employed can earn considerable profits with a successful business, losses can force them out of business and, in some instances, place them in debt. A third disadvantage concerns income security. Self-employed people have no guaranteed wage. Their earnings can vary greatly from year to year, depending on business conditions. Salaried people, on the other hand, can generally count on continued earnings from year to year. In addition, salaried people often enjoy fringe benefits that mean greater peace of mind. Fringe benefits are all of the benefits provided for employees in addition to wages and salaries. One of these benefits may be insurance paid for by the employer that continues the employee's salary in the event of sickness or accident. Many self-employed people do not have such protection, unless they put money aside themselves.
21. A self-employed person is one _____________.
[A] who can make a big profit                                    [B] who is his or her own boss
[C] whose business has a better chance to success              [D] who employs no others but his or her relatives
22. One of the advantages self-employment offers is that self-employed people ________.
[A] may decide when and how long they work
[B] have outstanding abilities and intelligence
[C] may get more business support from the government
[D] are easy to earn money and ready to become wealthy
23. One problem of self-employment is that ___________.
[A] there is no guarantee of income security
[B] it is comparatively weak in management
[C] an employer's earnings have nothing to do with business conditions
[D] salaries may vary greatly from person to person
24. We may guess from the context that fringe benefits _____________.
[A] are all the money provided for employees
[B] are benefits an employee receives apart from wages and salaries
[C] consist of those that are paid by insurance companies
[D] result from business activities the employer has organized
25. The author's attitude towards self-employment is ____________.
[A] positive                     [B] negative                  [C] indifferent               [D] objective
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
    Every living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. It tells plants when to form flowers and insects when to leave protective cocoon
(茧)and fly away. And it tells animals and human beings when to awaken, sleep, and seek food. It controls our body temperatures, the release of some hormones(激素)and even dreams.
    Events outside the plant and animal affect its actions. Scientists recently found that a tiny animal called Siberian hamster changes the color of its fur because of the number of hours of daylight. In shorter days of winter its fur becomes white. The fur becomes gray-brown in longer hours of daylight in summer.
    Inner signals control other biological clocks. German scientists found that some internal one seems to order birds to begin their migration flights two times each year. Birds prevented from flying become restless when it is time for the trip. But they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.
    A mix of outside and internal events controls some biological clocks; such things as heartbeat and the daily change from sleep to walking take place because of both external and internal signals.
    Scientists are beginning to learn which parts of the brain contain the biological clocks. A researcher at Harvard University ─ Dr. Martin Moore Ede ─ said a small group of cells near the front of the brain seems to control the timing of some of our actions. Probably there are other cells to control other body activities. He is studying how they affect the way we do our work. Most of us have great difficulty if we must often change to different work hours. It can take many days for a human body to accept a major change in work hours. Industrial officials should have a better understanding of biological clocks and how they affect workers. He said such an understanding could reduce sickness and accidents at work, and would help increase production.
26. Which of the following can not be controlled by biological clocks?
[A] Dreams.                                                      [B] when and what to eat.
[C] Body temperature.                                        [D] When the flowers should open.
27. The author mentions Siberian hamster to illustrate that _________.
[A] every living thing has a biological clock
[B] Siberian hamster is a highly adaptive species
[C] biological clocks can change an animal's skin color
[D] external factors can affect the behavior of an organism
28. From the passage we can infer that __________.
[A] biological clocks are responsible for all the human behaviors
[B] biological clocks are too mysterious to be explained
[C] heartbeat and some daily activities affect biological clocks
[D] studies on biological clocks can throw some light on human actions
29. Why should industrial officials have a better understanding of biological clocks?
[A] Because some cells in the brain are very important.
[B] Because it is very hard to change working time.
[C] Because it may lead to improvement of work efficiency.
[D] Because it takes a long time for a person to get used to the shift of work hours.
30. The best title for the passage could be _________.
[A] A Brief Account of Biological Clocks               [B] Biological Clocks and Work Efficiency
[C] How Biological Clocks Work                                 [D] The location of Biological Clocks
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
    “There is no arguing about taste”─ runs the Latin proverb. But taste did not just happen. Cultural, historical, biological and environmental events have interacted to cause frogs, for example, to be viewed as delicious in southern China but to be regarded with revulsion
(厌恶)in northern China. Even though much remains unknown, tastes cannot be dismissed as inarguable or illogical; an attempt will be made here to discover why, as Lucretius put it, “What is food to one man may be fierce poison to others?”
    Among the approximately thirty million tribal people of India, a total of 250 animal species are avoided by one group or another. Most of these people will not eat meat from a tiger or any of various snakes. Although they say they feel a relationship with these animals, it is obvious that both are highly dangerous and that hunting them systematically would be foolish.
    Monkeys are avoided, probably because they look like human beings in appearance; in these tribes, man-eating is viewed as extremely cruel. A reluctance to eat some female animals has been attributed to respect for the mother's role, but it could also be due to a policy of allowing the females to reproduce and provide more young for people. Many tribes avoid eating any animal that has died of unknown causes an intelligent attitude in view of the possibility that the animal might have died from a disease that could spread to humans. Animals that consume garbage are similarly avoided, an adaptive step that prevents contact with parasites
(寄生虫), and that might explain why members of one tribe eat any of twenty-one different species of rats, but not the house rats.
31.“There is no arguing about taste”, which means ___________.
[A] people don't like to talk about food                  [B] one's taste in food is hard to explain
[C] there is no quarrelling about to eat                  [D] no arguments about taste have been heard of before

32. It can be concluded from the first paragraph that ____________.
[A] the author is against eating frogs                    [B] taste is illogical and inarguable
[C] some types of frogs are poisonous                 [D] taste is influenced by many factors
33. The tribal people in India don't eat snakes because _____________.
[A] they are very dangerous                                [B] they are respected by Indians
[C] they may spread disease                                [D] they help kill rats
34. The tribal people in India may not eat the following animals EXCEPT _________.
[A] donkeys                    [B] tigers                      [C] female deer             [D] house rats
35. The passage is probably written for the purpose of ________.
[A] introducing the eating habit of Indian tribal people   [B] distinguishing different types of taste
[C] accounting for people's different choices of taste [D] explaining the relationship between taste and tribes
第二部分(非选择题,共50分)
Ⅳ. Word Spelling
10 points,1 point for two words)将下列汉语单词译成英语并写在答卷纸上。作为提示,每个词的词类和第一个字母以及用短线表示的其余字母数,已给出。
36.
卖方   n. s _ _ _ _ _                                          37. 抽象的 a. a _ _ _ _ _ _ _
38.
正式的 a. f _ _ _ _ _                                          39. 递送   v. d _ _ _ _ _ _
40.
最高的 a. s _ _ _ _ _ _                                41. 证据   n. e _ _ _ _ _ _ _
42.
完美的 a. p _ _ _ _ _ _                                43. 频繁地 ad. f _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
44.
成年人 n. a _ _ _ _                                     45. 假装   v. p _ _ _ _ _ _
46.
农业的 a. a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                             47. 遥远的 a. r _ _ _ _ _
48.
稀有的 a. r _ _ _                                         49. 火山   n. v _ _ _ _ _ _
50.
存在   v. e _ _ _ _                                      51. 能量   n. e _ _ _ _ _
52.
平均   n. a _ _ _ _ _ _                                53. 限制   v. r _ _ _ _ _ _ _
54.
熟悉的 a. f _ _ _ _ _ _ _                              55. 抱怨   v. c _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Ⅴ. Word Form
10 points,1 point for each
将括号中的各词变为适当形式填入空白。答案写在答卷纸上。
56. Today many people are paying more attention to _________(reduce) stress in their lives.
57. For a person with good reading habits, a __________(print) page contains not only words but ideas, thoughts and feelings.
58. The right answers can be obtained only if the right questions _________(ask).
59. The first _________ (know) area was in India, where diamonds were found thousands of years ago.
60. A modern husband shares important decisions with his __________(work) wife.
61. He was the first to draw a map that __________(base) on all available knowledge, rather than guess or imagination.
62. Proverbs are quite common in both written and ________(speak) English.
63. I suggested that the meeting __________(hold) at some other time.
64. I didn't go to the party, but I do wish I ________(be) there.
65. It is generally agreed that a panic attack does not directly _________
dangera person's life.
Ⅵ. C-E Translation
15 points,3 points for each)将下列各句译成英语并将答案写在答卷纸上。

66. 她有个朋友过去常常吸毒。
67.
正是这些孩子需要心理治疗。
68.
研究表明男人比女人更容易得心脏病。
69.
购买保险时你能完全信赖保险代理商吗?

70. 我认为她不会买象旧衣服和空瓶子这样的东西。
Ⅶ. E-C Translation
15 points)将下列短文译成汉语并将答案写在答卷纸上。
    Visitors can find almost any kind of restaurant in most of the large cities in America. The telephone book lists restaurants for each city according to name, area of the city, or kind of food. Restaurants in large cities vary greatly in price. Many restaurants post their menus in the window so you can have some idea of the price and kind of food before you enter. If the menu is not posted, and you are uncertain about how expensive the place is, ask to see a menu before you are seated at a table, or else just ask about the price range. Appearances from the outside can be misleading ─ what looks like a small, informal restaurant may really be very expensive, and what looks like a large, expensive restaurant may be very reasonable.

You can get a meal for about $5 or slightly more if you eat in bars or coffee shops, but in most city restaurants you should expect to pay $20 to $30 a person for dinner, with drinks extra.

 

 

2002年(上)自考英语()试题

.Vocabulary and Structure (10 points,1 point for each)
从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案。
1. What you said reminds me ____ something I read a few days ago.
A. for                         B. by                           C. from                       D. of
2.Another worry is that telecommunication systems may isolate people__ each other
A. from                             B. for                          C. with                        D. to
3.The smog is due __ invisible gases, mostly from automobile exhaust.
A. from                             B. to                            C. for                          D. with
4.__ is accepted as true is relatively, and not absolutely, true.
A. It                           B. That                        C. What                       D. That it
5.There are many children and adolescents ___ behavior is generally unacceptable.
A. their                       B. who                        C. whom                     D. whose
6. Edison failed __ times before he succeeded in producing the first electric lamp.
A. thousand                B. thousands                C. a thousand of           D. thousands of
7.Water ____ the digestive juices flow more freely and helps to digest the food.
A. makes                    B. causes                     C. pushes                    D. turns
8.The panic attacks may ____ for only a few minutes; some, however, continue for several hours.
A. happen                   B. begin                       C. last                         D. end
9.Let us see how dictionaries are made and how the editors ____ definitions.
A. lead to                    B. arrive at                   C. reach for                 D. approach to
10.The nurse took ___ of my blood to test.
A. an example             B. an instance               C. a case                     D. a sample
. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)
下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案。
    Earth’s animals are disappearing faster than they reproduce. Because there is too 11 research and too much ignorance, 12 is aware of how much we are losing.
    Many different kinds of plants and animals 13 extinct. Every year,0.5 percent of the 14 things in the tropical rain forests become extinct. Some disappear 15 they are found and named. No one has time 16 them before they are gone.
    The disappearance of species 17 scientists. They want the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 to be made 18 .This act was formed to protect endangered species. 19, land developers, and factory owners disagree. They want changes that will make the act weaker. They think the act is not working. They believe it is not 20 to private landowners. They want the act to consider people more.
11. A. little                         B. a little                      C. few                         D. a few
12.A.anyone                       B. no one                     C. someone                  D. either one
13.A.are becoming              B. were becoming         C. became                   D. are to become
14.A.lively                         B. alive                        C. living                D. live
15.A.as                              B. after                        C. until                        D. before
16.A.study                         B. to study                   C. studying                  D. studied
17.A.interests                     B. attracts                    C. worries                   D. encourages
18.A.better                         B. larger                             C. faster                             D. stronger
19.A.However                    B. Furthermore             C. Therefore                D. Though
20.A.enough                             B. fair                          C. important                 D. effective
.Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)
从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案。
Passage One
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
    You can improve your child’s hearing memory considerably. Once his hearing memory has been greatly improved, he'll be able to use and remember what he listens to in class. The success of these suggestions depends upon your ability to use your child’s natural desire to get involved in games he finds simple and fun.
    A good way to begin is to read aloud a sentence from a book suitable for your child's reading age. Then ask your youngster to repeat the sentence back to you correctly. Next, reread the sentence, leaving out a particular word. See if your child can identify the word you left out. At the beginning use only simple sentences. Gradually, increase the length of the sentences. Make sure you don’t rush things along too quickly, or your child may become discouraged and tired of the game.
    Take your child shopping with you often. He’s to remember a list of items you want to buy in the supermarket. At first ,ask him to remember only a few things. Then, as he shows increased ability to remember, make the list longer and longer. Praise him often and warmly when he shows increased ability to remember things. He'll become proud of his ‘good’ memory and will happily play the game.
    Encourage your child to learn easy and short poems. As his ability to do this becomes stronger, encourage him to remember longer poems. Do the same with songs.
21.The suggestions will be successful if____.
A. you find simple and funny games for your child
B. you can stimulate your child’s interest in the activity
C. you force your child to get involved in more practice
D. you improve your own hearing memory first
22.The purpose of asking your child to repeat what you say is __.
A. to practice his pronunciation                                B. to develop his reading skills
C. to help him remember what he hears                    D. to play a simple game he may find fun
23.The third paragraph mainly talks about ___.
A. another way to improve your child’s hearing memory
B. how you should take you child shopping with you
C. how to remember the items you want to buy
D. the way you help your child do shopping
24.The last sentence ‘Do the same with songs’ means you should encourage your child to learn and remember ___.
A. songs in the same way as he does with poems.     B. poems in the same way as he does with songs
C. the poems and songs which are similar in meaning D. those songs that have the same meaning as poems
25.Who are the supposed readers of this passage?
A. Children.                       B. Parents.                   C. Teachers.         D. Psychologists.
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
    In the United States, it is important to be on time, or punctual, for an appointment, a class, a meeting, etc. However, this may not be true in all countries. An American professor discovered this difference while teaching a class in a Brazilian(
巴西的)university. The two-hour class was scheduled to begin at 10 A.M. and end at 12.On the first day, when the professor arrived on time, no one was in the classroom. Many students came after 10 A.M. Several arrived after 1030 A.M. Two students came after 11 A.M. Although all the students greeted the professor as they arrived, few apologized(道歉)for their lateness. Were these students being rude? He decided to study the students’ behavior.
    The professor talked to American and Brazilian students about lateness in both an informal and a formal situation: at a lunch with a friend and in a university calls, respectively. He gave them an example and asked them how they would react. If they had a lunch appointment with a friend, the average American student defined lateness as 19 minutes after the agreed time. On the other hand, the average Brazilian student felt the friend was late after 33 minutes.
    In an American university, students are expected to arrive at the appointed hour. In contrast, in Brazil, neither the teacher nor the students always arrive at the appointed hour. Classes not only begin at the scheduled time in the United States, but also end at the scheduled time. In the Brazilian class, only a few students left the class at 12
00; many remained past 1230 to discuss the class and ask more questions. While arriving late may not be very important in Brazil, neither is staying late.
26.The word ‘punctual’ most probably means ___.
A. leaving soon after class                                       B. coming early
C. arriving a few minutes late                                  D. being on time
27.Why did the professor study the Brazilian students’ behavior?
A. He felt puzzled at the students' being late.              B. He felt angry at the students' rudeness.
C. He wanted to make the students come on time later. D. He wanted to collect data for one of his studies.
28.It can be inferred from the professor’s study of lateness in the informal situation that ____,
A. American students will become impatient if their friend is five minutes late
B. neither Brazilian nor American students like being late in social gatherings
C. being late in one culture may not be considered so in another culture
D. Brazilian students will not come thirty-three minutes after the agreed time
29.From the last paragraph we know that in Brazil ____.
A. it is important to arrive at the appointed time         B. it is rude to keep the professor staying after calls
C. it is normal for students to leave during lectures    D. it is acceptable for professors to be late for class.
30.What is the main idea of this passage?
A. It is important to be on time for class in the United States.
B. The importance of being on time differs among cultures.
C. People learn the importance of time from the culture they are in.
D. Students being late for class should explain the reason to their teacher.
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
    Conflict, like stress, is a natural phenomenon when people interact. Conflict in some form is always present; however, it is not always negative. Conflict can be positive, for example, when you and your colleagues try to select the best possible alternative to a problem. However, much more attention is given to the negative aspects of conflict.
    Conflict occurs when we fear the unknown. This can be very simple: someone says something in a tone of voice different from our expectations, which raises questions in our mind as to what the real meaning might be. Of course conflict can, and does, occur in much more serious circumstances.
    Your ability to detect and understand conflict will place you in a better position to control the situation. Conflict is often categorized in three stages. Stage one is the day-to-day irritations(
恼人的事)that require minimal coping strategies. Stage one conflict is real but low in intensity. The intensity can increase if irritations increase and no solution is found.
    Stage two is reached when the parties become competitive. Each person protects his self-interest and fears loss of face. The win-lose attitude becomes integrated with the problem.
    Stage three is reached when the objective changes from wanting to win toward wanting to hurt the other party. This stage can be explosive because other people are drawn into the conflict and sides are chosen. Problem solving is no longer a realistic method of resolution.
    By understanding the three stages of conflict, it will be easier for you to handle the day-to-day situations to which you are exposed. You will also be able to detect potential conflict between others in which you do not want to get involved.
31.Conflict is ____.
A. paid attention to because it is negative                   B. only positive when occurring between colleagues
C. universally present in human interactions                     D. similar to stress in every aspect
32.Stage two conflict is different from stage one conflict in that ___.
A. it is caused by daily disputes                                B. it is low in intensity
C. it takes a form of competition                              D. it always leads to loss of face
33.The third stage can be explosive because _____.
A. quarreling becomes inevitable                              B. it is not longer a conflict between two individuals
C. people begin to hate each other                                   D. no solution is possible
34.The ability to identify conflict ___.
A. can help you make good use of conflict                B. enables you to win every competition
C. can prevent conflict from occurring                            D. can help you deal with the situation better
35.The conflict between a student and his roommate caused by different living habits is an instance of ____.
A. stage one conflict                                              B. stage two conflict
C. stgae three conflict                                            D. none of the above
.Word Spelling (10 points,1 point for two words)
将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个词的词类和第一个字母以及用短线表示的其余字母数,已给出。
36.
介绍v. i_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                               37.犹豫v. h_ _ _ _ _ _ _
38.
装备,设备n. e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                   39.周期n. c_ _ _ _
40.
黄色的a. y_ _ _ _ _                                   41.吸引.v. a_ _ _ _ _ _
42.
频繁地ad. f_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                             43.关闭v. s_ _ _
44.
进步n. p_ _ _ _ _ _ _                                45.请求n. r_ _ _ _ _ _
46.
拥有v. p_ _ _ _ _                                      47.被动的a. p_ _ _ _ _ _
48.
整洁的a. n_ _ _                                        49.岩石n. r_ _ _
50.
最终ad. e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                            51.智慧n. w_ _ _ _ _
52.
发明v. i_ _ _ _ _                                       53.遥远的a. r_ _ _ _ _
54.
理论n. t_ _ _ _ _                                       55.车轮n. w_ _ _ _
.Word Form (10 points, 1 point for each) 将括号中的各词变为适当形式填入空白。
56.Some young people got ____ (marry) without even telling their parents or other family members.
57.He won’t let anyone else ____ (visit) his sister.
58.If you had spoken clearly, you ___ (understand).
59.Everyone should be allowed to make a mistake without ____ (punish) for it.
60.Usually,such harmful fumes rise into the upper air and ____ (blow) away by the wind.
61.This __ (discover) of diamond came at time when there was a big demand.
62.The news was made ____ (know) to the public at last.
63.By the end of this year, Mr. Brown ____ (be)here for twenty years.
64.A___(smile)Chinese may not be approving but somewhat embarrassed.
65.I'm going to take the bus ___ (save) money.
.C-E Translation (15 points, 3 points for each) 将下列各句译成英语。
66.
你计划怎么来处理这个问题?
67.
我们明天出不出去要看天气。
68.
我们不愿意讨论保险的一个原因是保险很费钱。
69.
没有你的帮忙我们昨天就完不成任务。
70.
据说有些单亲家庭的孩子生活很悲惨。
Ⅶ.E-C Translation (15 points)
将下列短文译成汉语。
    Many people feel the health of American children is in trouble. In fact, 40% of children aged 5 to 8 may be unhealthy already. For example, many are overweight and have high blood pressure. Doctors believe that these conditions are the result of physical inactivity.
    In many countries in the world, all school children have to do one hour of exercise every day. These exercises may be simple, such as running or jumping. Doctors believe that habits learned early are more likely to stay with us through life. School is the perfect place to learn these habits. Active, healthy children who exercise regularly can become active, healthy adults.

2002年(下)自考英语()试题

PART ONE
Ⅰ. Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each)
从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并将最佳答案前选项字母写在答题纸上。
1. There are only four areas _____ very many diamonds have been found.
 A. when                   B. where               C. that                          D. which
2. She decided to do ____ a lot of other girls were doing those days.
 A. how                    B. why                  C. which                      D. what
3. Money provides a unit of account that serves _____ a standard to measure value.
 A. as                       B. for                    C. in                                   D. with
4. One way to preserve species _____ threat of extinction is to remove them to zoos and parks and breed them there.
 A. for                      B. with                  C. under                       D. beyond
5. Regardless _____ which methods we choose, the end result will be the same.
 A. about                   B. in                      C. for                           D. of
6. The burning of rainforests is directly _____ to the so-called greenhouse effect.
 A. contributing         B. attributing          C. constituting                     D. associating
7. Someone who stays with you and helps you in times of trouble, rather than turning his _____,is a true friend.
 A. face                    B. head                  C. hand                        D. back
8. The expression "haste makes waste" does not _____ to reading.
 A. affect                 B. apply                 C. adopt                       D. attend
9. Experiments have to be made under carefully _____ conditions.
 A. treated                B. supplied             C. related                     D. controlled
10. The atmosphere consists of an ocean of gases _____ miles high.
 A. hundreds             B. hundreds of              C. of hundreds             D. of hundreds of
Ⅱ. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)
在下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,并将最佳答案前选项字母写在答题纸上。
    If we were asked what we were doing a year ago, we would probably have to say that we couldn't remember. But if we kept a book and had written in it an account of 11 we did each day, we should be able to give an answer 12 the question.
    It is the same with history. Many things have been 13 because we do not have any written account of them. Sometimes men did 14 a record of the most important happenings in their country, but often it was destroyed by fire or in a war. Sometimes 15 was never any written record at 16 because the people of that 17 and place did not know 18 to write. For example ,we know a good deal about the people who lived in China 4,000 years ago, because they could write and leave written records for those who 19 after them. But we know almost 20 about the people who lived even 2,000 years ago in central Africa, because they had not learned to write.
11. A. which                       B. that                          C. how                  D. what
12. A. to                            B. of                            C. for                   D. by
13. A. neglected                  B. disposed                   C. forgotten           D. passed
14. A. keep                         B. remain                      C. set                    D. break
15. A. it                              B. that                          C. there                D. this
16. A. last                           B. all                           C. least                  D. once
17. A. area                          B. kind                         C. condition           D. time
18. A. when                        B. which                      C. what                 D. how
19. A. followed                   B. lived                         C. studied              D. bought
20. A. anything                   B. everything                C. nothing             D. something
Ⅲ. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)
阅读下列短文,并从下列短文的问题后所给的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并将最佳答案前选项字母写在答题纸上。
Passage one
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
    Some people learn a second language easily. Other people have trouble learning a new language. How can you help yourself learn a new language, such as English? There are several steps to make learning English a little easier and more interesting.
    The first step is to feel positive about learning English. If you believe that you can learn, you will learn. Be patient. You do not have to understand everything all at once. It is natural to make mistakes when you learn something new. We can learn from our mistakes. In other words, do not worry about taking risks.
    The second step is to practice your English. For example, write a diary every day. You will get used to writing in English, and you will feel comfortable expressing your ideas in English. After several weeks, you will see that your writing is improving. In addition, you must speak English every day. You can practice with your classmates outside class. You will all make mistakes, but gradually you will become comfortable communicating in English.
    The third step is to keep a record of your language learning. You can write this in your diary. After each class, think about what you did. Did you answer a question correctly? Did you understand something the teacher explained? Perhaps the lesson was difficult, but you tried to understand it. Write these in your diary.
    You must be positive about learning English and believe that you can do it. It is important to practice every day and make a record of your achievements. You will enjoy learning English, and you will have more confidence in yourself.
21. In the author's opinion, the first thing to remember is ____.
 A. to avoid making mistakes when speaking the language
 B. to spend more time using the newly learned language
 C. to believe you have the ability to learn a new language
 D. to learn the second language with the help of your teacher
22. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the third paragraph?
 A. Everybody may make mistakes when learning.   B. Keeping a diary will help you learn better.
 C. Speaking should be emphasized.                      D. Practice makes perfect.
23. The main function of the third step is ___.
 A. to remind you of the mistakes you made in class       B. to help you think about your learning process
 C. to help you understand the teacher better           D. to record how well you perform in class
24. In the last paragraph, you are advised ____.
 A. to make a daily record of anything you plan to do
 B. to enjoy learning English rather than any other languages
 C. to take a positive attitude towards your language study
 D. to believe that you are capable of doing anything you want to
25. What is the main idea of this passage?
 A. There are ways to help you learn a second language easily.
 B. Different people have different ways to learn English.
 C. Language learners should write a learning diary.
 D. It is important to learn a new language well.
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
    You may have the business qualifications(
合格证明). You have an excellent record of good education and work experience. However, without good business manners you will not succeed.
    Treating people with respect should be second nature to you. It helps you get on well with the people you work with and with your bosses. It always pays to be polite. Here are some tips to help improve your business manners.
    If you are behind schedule, remember to take the time to contact your next appointment so that the person you are due to meet is aware of the delay. If necessary, you should rearrange the meeting for a more convenient time.
    Try not to leave any caller on hold for too long. It is better to tell someone you will call back when you are free. Be sure to return calls as soon as you can. If you cannot return the call immediately, apologize(
道歉) to the caller for the delay.
    Try to respond to letters within a set time. Keep a record of requests for reply within a certain time. Make a note in your diary of other deadlines(
最后期限)for your work. If you are unable to respond quickly, write a short letter to the other person to explain the delay and tell him when you will reply.
If you want to take a customer or a business friend out for lunch, you had better choose the restaurant and let your guest choose the time.
    You may think that you are not being paid as much as you should be. Do not discuss the matter with your colleagues. A good way is to contact an employment agency to find out the 'going rate'. Armed with this objective information, you can discuss your salary with your boss.
26. What does the author emphasize for a person's success in business?
 A. Business qualifications.                            B. An excellent record of education.
 C. Work experience.                                    D. Business manners.
27. What does the author mean by saying "It pays to be polite"?
 A. You must be paid more money to be polite.       B. You have to pay for your training to be polite.
 C. To be polite will eventually benefit you.     D. Customers pay for your being polite.
28. The word 'tip' used in sentence 4, paragraph 2, refers to _____.
 A. a useful hint or idea                                  B. a pointed end of anything
 C. a piece of secret information                            D. a small amount of money given in return for a service
29. When you know you are going to be late for an appointment, you should ____.
 A. inform the person you're meeting of your delay
 B. leave the person a message telling him not to wait long
 C. tell the person to postpone the meeting
 D. apologize for taking the other person's time
30. If you think you are underpaid, it is suggested that you ___.
 A. go directly to your boss and discuss the matter frankly
 B. ask your colleagues secretly how much they earn
 C. go to an employment agent to look for another job
 D. get objective information about the job market first
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
    The journey two divers made some time ago to the very deepest point on the earth makes us realize how much of the world still remains to be discovered. The two men went down seven miles to the bottom of the Pacific Ocean inside a small steel ball to find out if there are any ocean currents or signs of life.
    It was necessary to set out early, so that the ball would come to the surface in daylight, and be e easily found by the mother ship which would be waiting for it. The divers began preparations early in the morning and soon afterwards, when all was ready, the steel ball disappeared under the surface of the water.
    The divers felt as if they were going down steps as they passed through warm and cold layers of water. In time, the temperature dropped to freezing point. They kept in touch with the mother ship by telephone telling how they felt. Then at a depth of 3,000 feet, the telephone stopped working and they were cut off from the outside world. All went well until some four hours later at 30,000 feet, the men were frightened by a loud, cracking noise: even the smallest hole in the ball would have meant instant death. Luckily, though, it was only one of the outer windows that had broken. Soon afterwards, the ball touched the soft ocean floor raising a big cloud of "dust" made up of small dead sea-creatures. Here, powerful lights lit up the dark water and the men were surprised to see fish swimming just above them quite untroubled by the great water-pressure. But they did not dare to leave the lights on for long, as the heat from them would make the water boil. Quite unexpectedly, the telephone began working again and the faint but clear voices of the divers were heard on the mother ship seven miles away. After a stay of thirty minutes the men began their journey up, arriving three hours later, cold and wet through, but none the worse for their experience.
31. A diver is a person _____.
 A. who studies plants and animals living underwater      B. who works under water in a special dress
 C. who usually hides himself inside a small steel ball      D. whose job is to drive underwater vessels
32. The purpose of the two divers' journey to the deepest point on the earth is ___.
 A. to see if humans can stand the severe cold at the bottom of the ocean
 B. to investigate which part of the Pacific Ocean is the deepest
 C. to make sure that there are no signs of life in the great depths
 D. to find out if there are any ocean currents or living creatures there
33. The telephone stopped working at a depth of 3,000 feet ____.
 A. where the warm and cold layers of water were divided
 B. and thus the divers lost contact with their mother ship
 C. and the temperature immediately dropped to freezing point
 D. when a loud, cracking noise was suddenly heard inside the ball
34. The telephone began working again ___.
 A. after the steel ball reached the bottom of the ocean
 B. as soon as the divers went down to the depth of 30,000 feet
 C. shortly after one of the outer windows had broken
 D. just before the steel ball touched the soft ocean floor
35. On the ocean floor, the divers found that ______.
 A. there was no life but small dead sea-creatures
 B. fish were swimming as freely as they did near the surface
 C. fish did not dare to come near the powerful lights
 D. all the living creatures had a hard time under the high water-pressure
PART TWO
Ⅳ. Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)
将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个词的词类、首字母和用短线表示的其余字母数均已给出。将完整的单词写在答题纸上。
36.
部落n. t_ _ _ _                                 37. 发动机 n. e_ _ _ _ _
38.
四十num. f_ _ _ _                            39. 财产n. p_ _ _ _ _ _ _
40.
离婚v. d_ _ _ _ _ _                          41. 正方形n. s_ _ _ _ _
42.
选举n. e_ _ _ _ _ _ _                        43. 核心的a. n_ _ _ _ _ _ _
44.
轨道n. o_ _ _ _                                45. 典型的a. t_ _ _ _ _ _ 
46.
器官n. o_ _ _ _                                47. 科学的a. s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
48.
刺激v. s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                            49. 合同n. c_ _ _ _ _ _ _
50.
宗教n. r_ _ _ _ _ _ _                       51. 呼吸v. b_ _ _ _ _ _
52.
猜测v. g_ _ _ _                                53. 频繁地ad. f_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
54.
抽烟v. s_ _ _ _                                55. 文学n. 1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Ⅴ. Word Form(10 points, 1 point for each)
将括号中的各词变为适当形式填入空白。答案写在答题纸上。
56. In the 1720's, diamonds _______ (discover) in Brazil.
57. The primitive people thought that eating deer would make them _______(run) as fast as the deer.
58. Chunking consists of _______(group) separate bits of information.
59. Pronouns are used _______(save) the repetition of nouns.
60. They fought for national _______(free).
61. Stinging eyes and dry coughs show that _______(harm) chemicals fill the air.
62. The bride,_______(dress) in white, sat in a room alone.
63. The solutions to real problems cannot _______(see) in advance.
64. Work is said_______(do) when a body is made to move a distance.
65. Since_______(freeze) foods require so little time to cook, they have naturally become very popular everywhere in the country.
Ⅵ. C-E Translation(15 points, 3 points for each)
将下列各句译成英语并将答案写在答题纸上。
66.
如果你把这个数字和那个数字作比较,你会发现它们并不相等。
67.
那天她正是用这种方法掩盖自己的感情。
68.
有许多声音有意义但不是词。
69.
你能为这些现象找到合理的解释吗?
70.
他的沉默表明他对这个问题不感兴趣。
Ⅶ. E-C Translation (15 points)
将下列短文译成汉语并将答案写在答题纸上。
    When a young man starts to earn his own living, he becomes free from the discipline of school and parents; but at the same time he is forced to accept responsibilities. He can no longer expect others to pay for his food, his clothes, and his room, but has to work if he wants to live comfortably. If he spends most of his time playing about in the way that he used to as a child, he will go hungry. And if he breaks the laws of society as he used to break the laws of his parents, he may go to prison. If, however, he works hard, keeps out of trouble and has good health, he can have the great happiness of seeing himself make steady progress in his job and of building up for himself his own position in society.

2003年(上)自考英语()试题
PART ONE
.Vocabulary and Structure(10 points,1 point for each)
从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。
1
. Since Americans pay very high taxes, they often feel that they are working one day each week just      their taxes.
A. pay                  B
. to be paying             C. paid                  D. to pay
2. Advertising is only part of the total sales effort, but it is the part that        the most attention.
A
. attacks            B. attracts                    C. attaches            D. attributes
3. Information that does not make any        to you is difficult to remember.
A
. trouble             B. way                         C. sense                D. mistake
4. The United States is known for its supermarkets,       huge quantities of all kinds of food and household articles are sold.
A
. which              B. that                          C. when                D. where
5. The ants, hardworking       they are, have time for play.
A. as                    B. but                           C. so                     D. lest
6. Diamonds are the hardest        found in nature.
A
. instance           B. circumstance            C. substance          D. existence
7. Large and powerful, the atmosphere consists of an ocean of gases hundreds of miles      .
A
. high                B. higher                      C. highly               D. height
8
. Curiosity and imagination are important        which help stimulate the discovery of new facts and the laws of science.
A. techniques        B. technologies              C. qualities             D. quantities
9. Information in long
term memory can be      at a later time when it is needed.
A. remarked          B. reminded                  C. removed            D. recalled
10. Insurance agents are always friendly, well dressed, and eager to be       help.
A
. for                  B. of                           C. from                 D. into
Cloze Test(10 points,1 point for each) 下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。
    For human beings there is more to living than just staying alive. Therefore, your 11,or emotional and mental needs are important. You need to love and 12.You need to feel safe and secure. At the same time, you need to feel13.You need stimulation and variety to keep your brain14and to achieve personal growth. You also need to have a sense of 15,a personal identity, in order to know 16you are and how you fit in the environment.
    Of all the emotional needs, a need for love is the17basic.At different times in life, you experience the need for love in different ways.18, a helpless baby feels love in 19to care. Love means being kept dry and warm and being fed. Gentle touch and firm support create a feeling of trust20 the baby for the people who care for it.
11.A. physical                     B. political                    C. psychological            D. educational
12.A. to be loved                 B. to be loving               C. to have loved            D. to be for love
13.A. depend                      B
. depended                 C. dependent                 D. independent
14.A. act                                   B
. acted                       C. active                      D. action
15.A. self                           B. own                         C
. you                         D. yours
16.A
. that                           B. who                         C. which                      D. how
17.A
. much                        B. more                        C. most                        D. very
18.A
. In addition                 B. On the average          C. Of course                 D. For example
19.A
. response                   B. regard                      C. terms                       D. view
20.A
. at                             B. in                             C. with                         D. by
Ⅲ.Reading Comprehension (30 points,2 points for each)
从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。
Passage one
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

    The term “flying saucer” refers to strange objects traveling through the earth’s atmosphere at very high speeds. Thousands of people all over the world claim to have seen them. Some believe them to be spaceships from other planets. Others insist that they are a secret type of aircraft being built on earth. Many people maintain that they are only natural phenomena happening under special temperature, light, or weather conditions. All reports, however, agree that the strange objects move at extremely high speeds and fail to follow the laws of motion by reversing(
逆转) direction instantly without slowing down.
    In the United States, the first flying saucers were reported on June 4,1947,by a private plane pilot. He saw nine objects traveling in the sky. Each was disk-shaped and very bright. Because their movements were compared to those of a “saucer skimming across the water”, newspaper reporters called them “flying saucers”.
    Some weeks after the first reported sighting, the United States Air Force was given the job of investigating all the reports of flying saucers. Because of the confusing variety of shapes, sizes, and colors reported, the Air Force adopted the term Unidentified Flying Objects(UFO) to describe them.
    Since the Air Force officials began their investigation of flying saucers, they have identified most of the objects as stars, planes, man
-made satellites, experimental missiles(导弹),or weather phenomena. Some of the UFO reports, including photographs, were deliberate(蓄意的)tricks made to cheat people.
    All the research so far has failed to prove that UFOs are spaceships coming from outside the earth. Most investigators agree, however, that more study is needed before the question of whether or not flying saucers really exist can be answered.
21.The term “flying saucer” is generally used to refer to       .
A
. spaceships from other planets                             B. a secret type of aircraft being built
C
. some natural phenomena                                    D. strange objects flying very fast in the sky
22.The first flying saucers got their name       .
A
. from a private plane pilot who saw them                     B. for their brightness in color
C
. because they looked like disks moving in the air    D. because they skimmed across the water
23
.The Air Force preferred the term UFO because       .
A
. newspaper reporters used it
B
. the term “flying saucer” was very confusing
C
. UFO is a general term that can refer to a larger variety of objects
D
. the Air Force didn’t find any objects that looked like flying saucers
24.All the research has failed to identify any UFOs as       .
A
. man-made satellites                                           B. aircraft
C
. experimental missiles                                          D. spaceships sent from other planets
25
.From this passage we know that       .
A
. the US Air Force was the first reporter of flying saucers
B
. the term UFO was first used by the US Air Force investigators
C
. UFOs are not worth further investigation
D
. the question of whether there exist flying saucers has already been answered
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
    The American educator Horace Mann once said: “As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated.” Education is the process through which man attempts to pass on to his children his hard
-won wisdom and his ideals of a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as his culture demands. Schooling, or formal education, consists of experiences that are carefully planned to help young people learn what adults consider important for them to know and how they should respond to choices.
    While almost everyone accepts the goal of developing skills in the three Rs—reading, writing and arithmetic—it often seems impossible to reach agreement on any goal beyond that. In the broadest terms, the conflict over educational goals can be viewed as a conflict between two groups of people--- conservatives and liberals(
自由派).
    The conservatives tend to identify a desirable education with the transmission of the cultural knowledge, offering courses featuring the three Rs at the elementary level and academic(
普通文化课的)studies or strong vocational(职业的)or business courses in the secondary school. They stress training of the mind and development of abilities.
    The liberals tend to be interested in the development of the “whole child,” not merely in training his mind or in preparing him for adult life in a remote future. They emphasize rich, meaningful school living in the present, and they view subject matter as a resource for total human development rather than as a goal in itself. They believe that content should be acquired not for its own sake but as a means of encouraging thought and inquiry.
26. What Horace Mann means is that       .
A
. education is essential for man’s growth
B
. an apple is delicious only when it is ripe
C
. a man is like a child without proper education
D
. education can be compared to the growth of an apple tree
27
.At school, children       .
A
. find it hard to win wisdom                           B. have choices in what they learn
C
. are taught what adults select for them to learn      D. learn how they should respond to teachers questions
28
. The three Rs does not include        .
A
. arithmetic `             B. writing                     C. reading             D. reasoning
29.It’s most unlikely that the conservatives should emphasize       .
A
. the teaching of basic cultural knowledge
B
. courses in three Rs in the elementary school
C
. courses such as modern physics and marketing at the secondary level
D
. the development of the student as an individual person
30
. The liberals hold that       .
A
. the goal of school education is mainly to prepare students for adult life
B
. teaching activities should be rich and meaningful to the students
C
. course content should be learned and remembered for future use
D
. book knowledge is the only resource for learning
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
    It has been a widespread belief that the American family is dying. But a new study reveals that the American family is stronger than ever. This study affords surprising evidence of the persistence of American commitments to family life.
    The American family is changing, not dying: It is becoming smaller, men and women are becoming more equal, and the divorce rate is higher. But despite the high divorce rate, marriage has never been more popular. The majority of divorced people remarry, but only 2% marry more than twice. Most marriages last a long time, and a large proportion of divorces are from teenage marriages. Depending on the specific situation, there’s often good reason for teenage marriages to break up.
    There is no evidence that children receive less attention from mothers who work outside the home than from mothers working inside the home. So far the amount of educational or development time hasn
t varied very much, whether or not the mother works outside the home. In fact, working mothers try to make up for it by setting aside time only for their children.
    The study shows that television is by far the most significant new childcare arrangement of this century. The most important activity for children up to age 14 is watching television.
  School is the second most timeconsuming activity for children. They spend an average of about 19 hours a week in school. A larger proportion of children go to school now than ever before, and they stay in school longer. Another big change is that the proportion of very young children in daycare centers(
日托站) has almost doubled in recent years. Compared with these two dramatic changes in child activity, the changes caused by mothers working outside the home appear very small.
31
. The main idea of this article is that       .
A. the American family is dying
B. young people today don’t want to get married
C. the American family is changing, but it is stronger than ever
D. education has resulted in dramatic changes in the American family
32. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A
. Marriage is more popular than before.           B. Many divorced people remarry.
C
. The majority of marriages last long.              D. Working mothers devote less time to their children.
33. The author of this article believes that        .
A
. the American family is here to stay
B
. children should not watch so much television
C
. mothers should not work when their children are small
D
. teenage marriages should be encouraged
34. What is the most significant new childcare arrangement of this century?
A
. The daycare center.        B. Television.         C. The school               D. Development time.
35. According to the writer, which two major factors have led to the belief that the American family is dying?
A
. The divorce rate is high and working mothers neglect their children.
B
. The divorce rate is high and children care more about television than anything else.
C
. Divorces are becoming increasingly more and many teenage marriages break up.
D
. Children stay in school longer and mothers have little time to take care of them.
PART TWO
Ⅳ.Word Spelling(10 points,1 point for two words)
将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个单词的词类、首字母及字母数目均已给出。请将完整的单词写在答题纸上。
36.
表扬 v. p                                   37. 橡皮n. r          
38.
表面n. s                                 39. 厚的a. t         
40
. 蒸汽n. s                                    41. 权力n. p         
42
. 噪声n. n                                           43. 第九num. n          
44.
大声的a. l                                    45. 方法n. m            
46
. 羞耻n. s                                     47. 紧张n. t        
48
. 非法的a. i                                49. 运气n. l       
50
. 中间的a. m                               51. 严重的a. s           
52
. 财富n. w                                  53. 浅的a. s           
54
. 信号n. s                                   55. 胜利n. v             
Ⅴ.Word Form(10 points,1 point for each)
将括号中的各词变为适当的形式填入空白。答案写在答题纸上。
56. Many people feel that the United States         (have) a very complicated tax collection system.
57. In 1964,the Olympic Games in Tokyo      (become) the first program to be transmitted via satellite.
58
. In the recent past ,medical researchers        (begin) to emphasize the fact that heart diseases are associated with stress, smoking and a lack of exercise.
59
. Taxes consist of the money which people pay        (support) their government.
60
. For centuries the Atlantic Ocean kept the Americas from       (discover) by the people of Europe.
61
. The American consumer often feels constantly        (disturb) by insurance agents.
62
. Women tend to engage in more eye contact than men, especially when        (talk) to other women.
63
. Though marriage        (practice) in almost all countries of the world, the customs are quite different from one culture to another.
64
. No one has been able to prove that fish is any     (good) for the brain than many other kinds of food.
65
. If we did not have atmospheric pressure, we       (can, not have) automobile tires.
Ⅵ.Translation from Chinese into English (15 points,3 points for each)
将下列各句译成英语并将答案写在答题纸上。
66.
人所共知,大西洋仅有太平洋一半大。
67
. 人们可以在电视里观看他们想看的任何电影。
68
. 在过去几年里你在保险上花了多少钱?
69.
为了不被人误解,你应当认识肢体语言与文化关系密切。
70
. 直至14世纪较精确的地图才开始出现。
. Translation from English into Chinese (15 points) 将下列短文译成汉语并将答案写在答题纸上。
    While the quantity of food needed by the body is measured by the amount of energy, or calories, it has, the quality of food is determined by its nutrients. Nutrients are the substances in food that are needed by your body. You can consume enough soft drinks, bread, and potatoes to supply you with enough calories for the energy you need. But these foods will not supply you with all the necessary nutrients your body needs in order to function well.
    It is believed that there are forty five nutrients needed by the human body. It is essential that each of them be present in various amounts in a good diet. Each nutrient is responsible for performing a special body function.

  
                 2003年(下)自考英语()试题

PART ONE
Ⅰ.Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each item)

从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并写在答题纸的相应括号内。
1. The body needs fat to keep it ___________ the cold during the long winter months.
[A] between                  [B] from                       [C] for                  [D] out
2.There are several ways ___________ we can cross the river without the help of local villagers.
[A] in which                 [B] across which           [C] to which          [D] on which
3.You must hurry, ___________ you’ll be late for class.
[A] but                         [B] so                          [C] or                   [D] either
4.The smog may be so thick that airports are closed and chains of ________ occur on the highways.
[A] conflicts                 [B] contracts                [C] contrasts         [D] collisions
5.They finally ________ all hope of finding the missing dog which they liked so much.
[A] gave up                  [B] gave in                    [C] gave off           [D] gave out
6.People who drink a lot ________ those who use drugs are likely to suffer from panic attacks.
[A] less than                 [B] as well                    [C] other than        [D] as well as
7. ________, he is honest and popular with his neighbors.
[A] As he is poor           [B] Poor as he is           [C] As poor he is    [D] As is he poor
8.I wasn't at the meeting yesterday to hear ________ other people thought about this problem.
[A] which                     [B] who                       [C] what               [D] that
9.Had he not taken your advice, ________.
[A] he would make a bad mistake                      [B] would he have made a bad mistake
[C] he would have made a bad mistake               [D] he had made a bad mistake
10.Some people are ________ to use proverbs in their everyday conversation because they see them as vehicles of too much used wisdom.
[A] responsible              [B] reluctant                 [C] relevant           [D] remarkable
Ⅱ.Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each item)
下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,并写在答题纸的相应括号内。
    Lightening and thunder seem very different from fog, clouds, rain, wind, heat, and other things which make up the weather.____11____ without knowing about the rest of the ____12____,one cannot understand lightening and thunder. Long ago, ____13____ scientists had begun to study the weather, everyone was afraid of lightening and thunder. ____14____ the ancient Greeks and Romans, thunder was the angry voice of ____15____ great god Zeus, or Jupiter.
    Today we know more about weather and ____16____ lightening and thunder too, though there ____17____ still much to be learned. People today are not often afraid of thunderstorms, though we know that lightening ____18____ dangerous. ____19____ we understand lightening and thunder, there is a thrill (
激动) in watching a summer thunderstorm which clears the air and leaves us ____20____.
11.[A] So                     [B] If                    [C] For                        [D] Yet
12.[A] weather              [B] whether           [C] wonder                  [D]wander
13.[A] before               [B] after                      [C] since                     [D] when
14.[A] For                   [B] To                  [C] As                         [D] About
15.[A] its                     [B] his                  [C] their                       [D] one's
16.[A] in                      [B] about              [C] on                         [D] of
17.[A] are                    [B] was                [C] is                          [D] were
18.[A] can be               [B] must be           [C] need be                  [D] should be
19.[A] While                 [B] Although         [C] So                         [D] Because
20.[A] to relax              [B] relaxing           [C] relax                      [D] relaxed
Ⅲ.Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each item)
阅读下列短文,并从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并写在答题纸的相应括号内。
Passage One
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
    For many years, T-shirts were simple short-sleeved undershirts for men and boys. T-shirts used to be of one color---white. And since they were worn under shirts, they were generally not seen.
    Today the T-shirt has become fashionable. It can be seen everywhere and on everyone. Women and little children wear T-shirts as do teenagers, university students, and men from all walks of life (
各行各业).T-shirts are worn on playground, at the beach or in town. They can also be worn for work. Yet T-shirts remain relatively inexpensive and long wearing, as well as easy to care for. Smart but comfortable and convenient to wear, they have become one of American's newest ideas on fashion.
    Although T-shirts are now available in a wide variety of bright materials and styles, the most popular kind is the traditional cotton T-shirts with a slogan or picture printed on the front. A T-shirt may bear a picture, a single word, a popular phrase, or an advertisement. As T-shirts are becoming more and more popular, new designs are coming up all the time.
21.Which of the following statements is true about T-shirts in the past?
[A] There were lots of multi-colored T-shirts.            [B] There were many kinds of T-shirts.
[C] They were worn by people from all walks of life.  [D] They were usually worn inside.
22.We can learn from the second paragraph that __________.
[A] T-shirts are worn by little children rather than by teenagers
[B] T-shirts are considered relatively expensive now
[C] T-shirts are considered fashionable in America
[D] T-shirts are worn on playground because they are comfortable
23.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
[A] T-shirts are cheap but uncomfortable.                  [B] T-shirts are popular but difficult to care for.
[C] T-shirts are convenient and formal.                      [D] T-shirts are smart and long wearing.
24.What is the most popular kind of T-shirts?
[A] The silk T-shirt in white color.                            [B] The cotton T-shirt with a slogan or picture.
[C] The wool T-shirt worn at the beach.                    [D] The nylon T-shirt worn for work.
25.What is being done to make T-shirts more attractive?
[A] A variety of new styles are being designed.           [B] The price is being lowered again and again.
[C] Advertisements are being widely used.                 [D] The traditionally used material is being replaced.
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
    False teeth have been found in Italy in human heads that are over 2,500 years old. They were made of bone and set in gold. However, for hundreds of years afterwards, the apparent dental skill of those early people was lost. Without false teeth people looked old before their time, since so many lost their teeth at an early age.
    Toward the end of the 17th century, rich people could buy false teeth made from ivory. The teeth were tied together with silk thread, but it was difficult to keep them in the mouth. That was why rich people would rather buy teeth from the poor who would often sell their teeth to buy food and clothing.
    Early in the 18th century a French doctor used steel springs to hold teeth in place. However, it was difficult to close one’s mouth! Late in the same century porcelain (
)teeth set in gold were often used to make false teeth.
    Although the use of artificial teeth increased, human teeth continued to be used also. In the 19th century, teeth from soldiers killed in battle were made into artificial teeth. For example, teeth from the dead in the American Civil War were sent to England.
    By the middle of the 19th century, an American doctor, Claudius Ash, invented a better kind of porcelain tooth made of a special kind of hard rubber.
26.When did people with the earliest false teeth live according to the passage?
[A] At the end of the 17th century.                           [B] In the early 18th century.
[C] In the middle of the 19th century.                        [D] Over 2,500 years ago.
27.Which material would wealthy people use to make artificial teeth in 1693?
[A] Porcelain.                      [B] Hard rubber.            [C] Ivory.                            [D] Bone.
28.Who first used steel springs to tie false teeth together according to the passage?
[A] An Italian doctor.            [B] A French doctor.      [C] An American doctor.       [D] An English doctor.
29.We can learn from the passage that ___________.
[A] one looked older than his real age with artificial teeth
[B] we are using the same method as ancient people in making false teeth
[C] poor people would often sell their teeth to get money in the 17th century
[D] human teeth were no longer used in making false teeth after the 18th century
30.The passage is mainly about ___________.
[A] the discovery of false teeth                                 [B] the material of false teeth
[C] the use of false teeth                                          [D] the history of false teeth
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
    Trademarks (
商标) identify and distinguish the products of one business firm from those of another. It may include a word, a sentence, a name, a symbol, a picture, or any combination of these. Trademarks must be attached directly to the product. Many trademarks contain the name of the owner of the business. But manufacturers often use some word to describe the qualities of the product, or make up a word. The spoken part of a trademark is called the brand name.
    Trademarks provide a simple way for people to determine who is responsible for a particular item. They also help people identify the brands they liked in the past so they may purchase them again. Manufacturers use trademarks to promote the sale of their goods.
    Service marks also identify goods and services. They do not have to be attached to a product. Companies that provide services to the public, such as transportation companies, use these marks to advertise their services. For example, a blue sign with a bell, the symbol of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, tells every passer by that a public telephone is available for use.
    Laws to protect the rights of the trademark owner were developed in the early 1800’s.Most countries now provide for regulation and registration of trademarks. An important protection for trademark rights is federal(
联邦的)registration. In 1905, the U.S. Congress passed the first federal law on trademark registration to be held constitutional.
31.What may NOT be included in a trademark as mentioned in the first paragraph?
[A] A nice picture.         [B] A meaningful symbol.      [C] A national flag.         [D] A person’s name.
32.We learn from the second paragraph that trademarks are useful in that ___________.
[A] they help manufacturers to control the prices of their products
[B] they offer people the information about market in a simple way
[C] they make customers aware of their own responsibility for the items
[D] they enable customers to purchase the goods they prefer
33.The word “promote” in the last sentence, paragraph 2, probably means “____________”.
[A] to give higher position or rank                      [B] to try to increase the popularity
[C] to keep safe from harm or danger                       [D] to make a promise
34.According to the third paragraph, a blue sign with a bell ____________.
[A] is not a trademark but a symbol                           [B] is a trademark of transportation
[C] stands for a kind of service                                 [D] stands for a road map
35.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
[A] Trademarks must be attached to all products.
[B] Service marks not only identify products but also help to advertise services.
[C] Laws to protect trademark owners were probably developed between 1801-1810.
[D] Local registration is the only protection for trademark rights.
PART TWO
.Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two items) 将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个单词的词类、首字母及字母数目均已给出。请将完整的单词写在答题纸上。
36.
旅行;旅程n./v. j_ _ _ _ _ _                                     37.证实;确认v. c_ _ _ _ _ _
38.
在船(飞机,车)上ad./prep. a_ _ _ _ _                   39.债务,欠债n. d_ _ _
40.
增加,增长n./v. i_ _ _ _ _ _ _                                  41.努力,艰难尝试n. e_ _ _ _ _
42.
犹豫,迟疑v. h_ _ _ _ _ _ _                                     43.基本的,基础的a. b_ _ _ _
44.
奢侈,奢侈品 n. l_ _ _ _ _                                       45.创造性的 a. c_ _ _ _ _ _ _
46.
全球的,球面的 a. g_ _ _ _ _                                   47.产量;输出 n. o_ _ _ _ _
48.
重要的;有生命力的a. v_ _ _ _                               49.创立,创建v. f_ _ _ _
50.
几乎不,几乎没有ad. s_ _ _ _ _ _ _                         51.修改;更改 v. m_ _ _ _ _
52.
假如,若是conj. p_ _ _ _ _ _ _                                 53.粗糙的;粗暴的 a. r_ _ _ _
54.
天然的,自然的 a. n_ _ _ _ _ _                                55.联合,团结 v. u_ _ _ _
Ⅴ.Word Form (10 points, 1 point for each item)
 将括号中的各词变为适当的形式填入空白。答案写在答题纸上。
56.If he ___________(succeed) in finding the place in Canada, he will call you as soon as possible.
57.Some people believed if the wife worked for pay , the husband ___________ (not, consider ) to be a good provider.
58.The teacher is very strict and makes him ___________ (work) very hard.
59.He ___________ (read) the novel all morning and he hasn’t had his breakfast yet.
60.At the class meeting she suggested ___________ (form) a volleyball team for the coming sports meet in September.
61. ___________ (send) her two kids to school, she began to do some housework.
62. They ___________ (can, go) out because the light’s on.
63. Gas explosions frequently ___________ (threat) the miners’ lives before liberation .
64. As far as I know, Lily can speak English ___________ (fluently) than any other student in her class.
65.We insisted that the meeting ___________ (hold) as planned despite the absence of some members.
Ⅵ.Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each item)
将下列各句译成英语并将答案写出答题纸上。
66.
他的理论是否经得住考验在我们之间有分歧。
67.
从这个意义上说,坏事也可能转变成为好事。
68.
汤姆不是过去的样子了。
69.
这就是我赞成他的计划的原因。
70.
这道题这么复杂,我们要用很多时间才能解决。
Ⅶ.Translation from English into Chinese (15 points)
将下列短文译成汉语并将答案写在答题纸上。
    There are lots of reasons for buying a new mattress (
床垫) :getting married, moving to a new home or simply the desire for more sleeping space. No matter what the reason, the ultimate expectation is a good, restful night’s sleep.
    But with all the different constructions, firmness, sizes and prices for sleep sets, how do you decide which one is right for you? The makers suggest you treat bedding as a long-term investment. This means carefully considering the quality and comfort you are getting for your money.
    If you’ve decided to buy a new mattress, invest in the very best you can afford. Prices are determined by the material used, the quality of construction and the size of the set. It’s an investment in one-third of everyday of your life and that can have a dramatic effect on how you feel the other two-thirds.

               
2004年上半年全国高教自学考试英语()试卷

I. Vocabulary and structure (10 points, 1 point for each)
1. It is more important for them to learn to think in the language than _____ the meaning of every word.
A. know                   B. knew                C. to know           D. knowing
2. The Atlantic Ocean is more than 4,000 miles (6,000 km) wide _____ Columbus crossed it.
A. where                 B. when                C. that                  D. which
3. It is by this instinct _____ birds build their nests and beavers their dams and huts.
A. how                    B. why                 C. what                D. that
4. Some families have long histories, _____ others know very little about their ancestors.
A. while                   B. although           C. therefore          D. so
5. Only when you go through the mental exercises to come up with a tentative definition ____open the dictionary to see if you’re right.
A. would you           B. you will            C. should you        D. you can
6. Science began to develop rapidly when man _____ aside his wrong beliefs and began to seek true explanations.
A. lay                      B. laid                   C. lie                    D. lied
7. Garage-sale items are usually priced at a very small part of their ______ cost.
A. reluctant              B. original             C. advanced          D. recent
8. In the United States, anyone who is willing to quarrel with the dictionary is ______ as either eccentric or mad.
A. regarded              B. guided              C. revealed            D. discarded
9. We may say that a parrot ______, but cannot say that it really ______, because it cannot form new sentences out of the words it knows.
A. speaks….talks      B. talks…speaks    C. talks…tells        D. tells…speaks
10. Some states have a sales tax, which is a percentage ______ to any item which you buy in that state.
A. funded                B. earned              C. charged            D. varied
II. Cloze Test (10 points, 1point for each)
    Animals think much while building their houses. The bird searches 11 it can use in
building its nest, and in doing this it thinks. The beavers think 12 they build their dams and their houses. They think in getting their materials, and 13 in arranging them, and in plastering them together with mud. Some spiders build houses 14 scarcely have been made except by some thinking creature.
    As animals think, they learn. Some learn 15 others. The parrot learns to talk, 16 in
some other respects it is quite stupid. The mocking bird learns to 17 a great many different sounds. The horse is not long in learning many things 18 the work which he has to do. The shepherd dog does not know as much about most things as some 19 dogs, and yet he understands very well 20 take care of sheep.
11. A. for what                             B. after that                  C. before which           D. at all that
12. A. whereas                       B. during                     C. as                           D. in
13. A. too                              B. as well                     C. also                         D. either
14. A. which could                 B. that will                   C. what would             D. that should
15. A. as much as                   B. more than                C. less as                     D. fewer than
16. A. thus                             B. therefore                  C. however                  D. though
17. A. educate                        B. estimate                   C. intimate                   D. imitate
18. A. combined by                B. associated for           C. connected with               D. compared to
19. A. another                        B. other                       C. each                        D. every
20. A. how to                         B. where to                  C. what to                   D. when to
III. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)
Passage One
Question 21 to 25 are based on the following passage
    Why isn’t a dollar worth as much as it used to be ? One dollar is always worth the same amount, that is, 100 cents. But the value of a dollar is how much it can buy. The value of money depends on the cost of living. Economists say that the cost of living is the money that a family must pay for the necessities of life such as food, housing or rent, clothes, and medical expenses. For many years now, the cost of living has increased greatly, so the value of the dollar has decreased. When a dollar has a low value, you cannot buy as many things with it.
    No one fully understands why the cost of living keeps increasing, but economists believe that workers and producers can make prices go up. As workers earn more money, they have more money to spend, so they demand more goods. If there is a great demand for certain goods, the prices of these goods go up. At the same time, if there’s a shortage of goods, the prices also go up. For example, if everyone wants to buy more and more gas, the price of gas goes up. When companies keep gas from buyers, they can also make the price of gas go up.
    Families need to know what happens to their money. They need to make their income meet the cost of living, so many people plan a family budget. A budget is a list of monthly expenses. If your expenses add up to more than your income, you must find ways to save money. Maybe you’re spending too much on entertainment. Or if you’re spending too much on clothes, you may want to sew your own clothes. Budgeting helps you spend your money wisely as the cost of living increases.
21. According to the writer, what is the value of a dollar?
A. 100 cents     B. Things it can buy      C. The cost of living      D. The amount of work you do for it
22. What will happen to the value of the dollar when the cost of living increases?
A. The dollar will not be worth as much as it used to be.
B. The value of the dollar will remain to be the same amount.
C. The value of the dollar will increase greatly.
D. None of the above will happen.
23. Why does the cost of living keep increasing?
A. Workers are always poorly paid.                              B. Producers offer more and more goods.
C. People want to buy more and more goods.                D. Government does less and less to stop it.
24. Why do families need to know what happens to their money?
A. To have a better life                                               B. To make more money
C. To avoid loss of money.                                         D. To prevent from being poor.
25. What can we learn about “budget” in the passage?
A. The money you’ve already spent in a month.
B. The things you are not going to spend money on every month.
C. The ways you find to save money to meet the cost of living.
D. The expenses you plan to meet every month according to your income.
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
    Trees are useful to man in three very important ways: they provide him with wood and other products; they give him shade; and they help prevent drought (
干旱) and floods.
    Unfortunately, in many parts of the world, man has not realized that the third of these services is the most important. In his eagerness to draw quick profit from the trees, he has cut them down in large numbers, only to find that with the trees used he has lost the best friends he had. Two thousand years ago a rich and powerful country cut down its trees to build warships with which to gain itself an empire. It gained the empire but without its trees, its soil became hard and poor. When the empire fell to pieces, the home country found itself faced with floods and starvation.
    Even where a government realizes the importance of a rich supply of trees, it is difficult for it to persuade the villager to see this. The villager wants wood to cook his food with: and he can earn money by making charcoal(
木炭) or selling wood to the townsman(城里人).He is usually too lazy or too careless to plant and look after new trees. So, unless the government has a good system of control, or can educate the people, the forests will slowly disappear.
    This does not only mean that the villagers’ sons and grandsons have fewer trees. The results are even more serious. For where there are trees, their roots break up the soil allowing the rain to sink in and also bind the soil, thus preventing the soil from being washed away easily. But where there are no trees, the rain falls on hard ground and flows away on the surface, causing floods and carrying away with it the top-soil, in which crops grow so well. When all the top-soil is gone, nothing remains but worthless desert.
26. It is most important for man to realize that trees _______.
A. provide him with wood                                           B. help prevent drought and floods
C. give him shade                                                       D. help him get quick profit
27. By the story of the empire, the writer tries to tell us people _______.
A. are often eager to get quick profit from trees             B. will suffer by cutting down their trees
C. can make their country rich and powerful with trees  D. will not make an empire without trees
28. The government should help the villager realize the importance of trees by _______.
A. suggestion                         B. money                     C. education                 D. force
29. The most serious problem is that we don’t ______.
A. work hard to plant more trees                                  B. take good care of new trees
C. know the real importance of trees                                   D. leave more trees for our sons and grandsons
30. In the last paragraph, the writer emphasizes his point by means of _______.
A. contrast                             B. example                   C. criticism                  D. definition
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
    It is difficult to imagine what life would be like without memory. The meanings of thousands of everyday perceptions, the bases for the decisions we make, and the roots of our habits and skills are to be found in our past experiences, which are brought into the present by memory.
    Memory can be defined as the capacity to keep information available for later use. It includes not only "remembering" things like arithmetic or historical facts, but also involves any change in the way an animal typically behaves. Memory is involved when a rat gives up eating grain because he has sniffed something suspicious in the grain pile. Memory is also involved when a six-year-old child learns to swing a baseball bat.
    Memory exists not only in humans and animals but also in some physical objects and machines. Computers, for example, contain devices for storing data for later use. It is interesting to compare the memory-storage capacity of a computer with that of a human being. The instant-access memory of a large computer may hold up to 100,000 "words"---already for instant use. An average U. S. teenager probably recognizes the meaning of about 100,000 words of English. However, this is but a fraction of the total amount of information which the teenager has stored. Consider, for example, the number of faces and places that the teenager can recognize on sight.
    The use of words is the basis of the advanced problem-solving intelligence of human beings. A large part of a person's memory is in terms of words and combinations of words.
31. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT closely connected with memory?
A. Environment                      B. Life                         C. Habits                     D. Skills
32. What is memory according to the passage?
A. Ability to keep information.                                     B. Attention to historical facts.
C. Way an animal or a child behaves.                            D. Learning mathematics.
33. Which of the following is NOT the place where memory exists?
A. In humans                         B. In words                 C. In machines             D. In animals
34. What does the phrase “ a fraction of” in paragraph 3 mean ?
A. The same amount as           B. A lot of                    C. A small part of         D. Most of
35. What is the passage mainly talking about?
A. Comparison between human and computers’ memory.      B. What memory is.
C. Memory and words.                                                      D. Life without memory.
Part Two
IV. Word Spelling ( 10 points, 1 point for two words)
36. adj. 精确的 e_ _ _ _               37. aux. 需要 n_ _ _
38.
v. d_ _ _ _                     39. n. 基本的 b_ _ _ _
40.
n. 相信 b_ _ _ _ _                41. adj. 流行的 p_ _ _ _ _ _
42.
v. 建造 b_ _ _ _                   43. n. 电影 m_ _ _ _
44.
n. 大脑 b_ _ _ _                   45. n. 利润 p_ _ _ _ _
46.
v. 暂停 p_ _ _ _                   47. adj. 主要的 m_ _ _ _
48.
adj. 短的 s_ _ _ _                 49. num. 四十 f_ _ _ _
50.
adj. 繁忙的 b_ _ _                 51. n. 污染 p_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
52.
v. 限制 l_ _ _ _                   53. n. 幸福 h_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
54.
n. 经理 m_ _ _ _ _ _              55. v. 访问 v_ _ _ _
V. Word Form ( 10 points, 1 point for each)
56. ________ (frighten) by the thought that she was having a heart attack, Anne screamed for help.
57. Material that is organized is _________(well) remembered than jumbled information.
58. Some children listen to their Walkmans while the teacher ________(talk) to them .
59. People spend their weekends going from sale to sale, ________(hope) to run across a real treasure.
60. In the traditional family, the children ________(take) care of by the mother because she did not work outside the home.
61. The number of violent acts on television in the past years ________ (increase) from about 19 to 27 per hour.
62. Our language ________(include) a large number of words seldom used in ordinary conversation.
63. Thomas Edison failed thousands of times before he succeeded in ________(produce) the first electric lamp.
64. Your mind ________(keep) up with your reading speed if you ask it to.
65. Successful language learners discover their own way _______ (learn) the language.
VI. Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each)
66. 谁主持明天的会议还没决定。
67.
尊重他人的观点也是一种科学的态度。
68.
身体健康有助于你享受生活。
69.
我知道她为什么生气。
70.
公共场所应注意自己的言谈举止。
VII. Translation from English into Chinese (15 points)
    Ever since humans have lived on the earth, they have made use of various forms of communications. Generally this expression of thoughts and feelings has been in the from of oral speech. When there is a language barrier (
障碍), communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions stand for letters, words, and ideas. Tourists, the deaf and the mute have had to turn to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of whole words are very picturesque (生动) and exact and can be used intentionally; spelling, however, cannot.
    Body language transmits ideas or thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A wink (
眨眼) can be a way of greeting or indicating that one is only joking. A nod means approval, while shaking the head indicates a negative reaction.

2004年下半年全国高教自学考试英语(一)试卷
PART ONE (50 POINTS)
I
Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each item)
从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑.
1
Jean didn't have time to go to the concert last night because she was busy _____ for the examination
A
to prepare           Bto be prepared         Cpreparing                      Dbeing preparing
2
The teacher's insistence on high standards resulted ___ excellent work
A
with                  Bfrom                      Cin                          Dto
3
Read aloud ___ all the students in the classroom can hear you clearly
A
since                 Bbecause                  Cfor                        Dso that
4
I have no doubt ____ he will overcome all his difficulties
A
which                Bwhat                      Cthat                       Dif
5
It's necessary that he ____ in time to attend the meeting
A
come                 Bcame                     Ccomes                   Dwill come
6
Sometimes very young children have trouble ___ the right from the wrong
A
for separating     Bto separate              Chaving separated     Dseparating
7
______ the saying goes, practice makes perfect
A
Since                 BAs                         CFor                        DLike
8
It is impolite to _____ in others' private affairs
A
involve               Binvade                    Cintegrate                 Dinterfere
9
They thought the program was ___ investigating
A
worth                Bworthy                   Cworthwhile             Dworthing
10
To our delight, she quickly ____ herself to the situation
A
adopted              Badapted                  Cattached                 Dappealed
II
Cloze Test (10 points, 1point for each item) 下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项.根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑.
    Smoking is harmful to health. Our tobacco-seller, Mr. Johnson, always asks his customers, if they are very young, whom the cigarettes are bought __11__. One day, a little girl whom he had never seen before walked into his shop and demanded twenty cigarettes
She had the __12__ amount of money in her hand and seemed very sure of herself. Mr. Johnson was so __13__by her confident manner that he forgot to ask his usual question. __14__, he asked her what kind of cigarettes she wantedThe girl replied readily and handed him the moneyWhile he was giving her the __15__, Mr. Johnson said laughingly that as she was so young she should __16__ the packet in her pocket in case a policeman saw it__17__, the little girl did not seem to find it funnyWithout even smiling she took the packet and walked towards the doorSuddenly she stopped, turned __18__, and looked at Mr. JohnsonThere was a moment of silence and Mr. Johnson __19__ what she was going to say. All at once, in a clear, firm voice, she said “My dad is a policeman,” and with that she walked quickly __20__ the shop.
11
Awith                   Bto                          Cfor                 Dby
12
Aexact                 Bsome                     Clarge               Denough
13
Aworried              Bannoyed                 Csurprised         Dpleased
14
ATherefore           BInstead                   CAnyway          DSomehow
15
Achange               Bwarning                 Cbill                  Dcigarettes
16
Acover                 Bhide                        Cdip                 Dtake
17
ANevertheless       BMoreover               CTherefore        DThen
18
Aaway                 Bround                     Cover                      Daside
19
Awondered           Bconsidered              Cdoubted          Dexpected
20
Ainto                   Bout of                    Con                  Daway
III
Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2points for each item) 从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑.
Passage One
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
    Most people sometimes feel lonely, but it usually only lasts between minutes and a few hours. This kind of loneliness is not serious. In fact, it is quite normal. For some people, thought, loneliness can last for years. Now researchers say there are three different types of loneliness

    The first kind of loneliness is temporary
This is the most common typeIt usually disappears quickly and does not require any special attentionThe second kind, situational loneliness, is a natural result of a particular situation—for example, a family problem, the death of a loved one, or moving to new place. Although this kind of loneliness can cause physical problems, such as headaches and sleeplessness, it usually does not last for more than a year.
    The third kind of loneliness is the most severe
Unlike the second type, chronic (习惯性的) loneliness usually lasts more than two years and has no specific cause. People who experience habitual loneliness have problem socializing and becoming close to othersUnfortunately, many chronically lonely people think there is little or nothing they can do to improve their condition. Psychologists agree that one important factor in loneliness is a person's social contacts, e.g. friends, family members, coworkers, etc. We depend on various people for different reasons. For instance, our families give us emotional support, our parents and teachers give us guidance, and our friends share similar interests and activities with us. However, psychologists have found that, though lonely people may have many social contacts, they sometimes feel they should have more. They question their own popularity.
    Psychologists are trying to find ways to help habitually lonely people for two reasons: they are unhappy and unable to socialize and there is a connection between chronic loneliness and serious illness such as heart diseases
While temporary and situational loneliness can be a normal, healthy part of life, chronic loneliness can be a very sad, and sometimes dangerous, condition.
21
What can we learn from the passage about temporary loneliness?
A
It requires special attention.                                   BIt is very common and usually disappears quickly.
C
It is serious but it usually disappears quickly.    DIt is as serious as chronic loneliness.
22
Though lonely people may have many social contacts,          .
A
they want to socialize with more people                  Bthey still need others to guide them
C
they still others to support them emotionally            Dthey want to question their own popularity
23
What kind of loneliness can cause serious illness?
A
Temporary loneliness.                                           BSituational loneliness.
C
Chronic loneliness.                                                DShort-term loneliness.
24
Why do chronically lonely people need help?
A
Because they have difficulty socializing and chronic loneliness can cause serious illness.
B
Because chronic loneliness lasts more than two years.
C
Because they think there's little they can do to improve their condition.
D
Because they think they should have more social contacts.
25
According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
A
Only a small number of people feel lonely.
B
Like chronic loneliness, situational loneliness can cause physical problems.
C
Chronically lonely people have no difficulty socializing and becoming close to others.
D
All kinds of loneliness are very dangerous.
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage

    Studies show that the world in 2010 will be more crowded, more polluted and less stable ecologically (
在生态方面) than the world we live in now. Visible ahead is serious stress involving population, resources and environment. Despite greater food output, people in the world will be poorer in many ways than they are today.
    For hundreds of millions of the extremely poor, the outlook for food and other necessities of life will be no better
For many it will be worse.
    While the economies of the developing countries are expected to grow at a faster rate than those of the industrialized nations, the total national product per head in most less developed countries remains low. The existing gap between the rich and poor nations will further widen.
    World food production is estimated to increase by 90 percent from 1970 to 2010
Most of that increase goes to the countries that already have relatively higher per-head food consumption (消费). Meanwhile, per-head consumption of food in the developing countries will scarcely improve or will actually fall far below the present inadequate levelWhat is worse is prices for food are expected to double.
    As a result, many less developed countries will have increasing difficulties meeting energy needs. For the one quarter of mankind that depends primarily on wood for fuel, the outlook is not hopeful.
    Regional water shortage will become more severe
In the 1970-2010 period population growth will require twice as much water as it does today in nearly half the world. Still greater increases would be needed to improve standards of livingDevelopment of new water supplies will become more costly.
26
According to the passage, in 2010 while output of food will be greater,       .
A
people will have sufficient food supplies
B
The world resources will become more than enough
C
In most developing countries people will have less food than they have today
D
The living standards of the world's population will improve greatly
27
According to the author, in 2010 for many poor people,          .
A
things will get even worse
B
things will be a little better
C
it will be necessary for them to improve their housing
D
it will be impossible to obtain enough necessities of life
28
In the 1970-2010 period, the large proportion of global increase of food production goes       .
A
to 90 percent
B
to developing countries
C
to any country in the world that needs it
D
to those countries that already have high per head consumption
29
How does the author predict the development of new water supplies in the future?
A
Water shortage will occur in some regions only.
B
Development of new water supplies will be more expensive.
C
The less developed countries need more water than the developed ones.
D
The demand for water will double with the growing population.
30
Which of the following may best serve as the title of this passage?
A
the Future problems in the World                            BWater and Air Pollution
C
Water and Food Shortages                                           DFood Production and Consumption
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage

    The World Trade Organization (WTO), founded on January 1, 1995, aims to encourage international trade to flow as freely as possible, making sure that trade agreements are respected and that any disputes can be settled.
    In the five years since its founding, the WTO has become well known as one of the world's most powerful economic organizations, taking its place alongside the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (
国际货币基金组织).
    The system of global rules for international trade, however, dates back half a century to 1948 when the General Agreement on Tariffs (
关税) and Trade (GATT) was formed after World War II.
    As time went by, it became clear that the GATT had two major drawbacks—the limited areas of trade it covered, and the lack of an effective system to settle disputes

    After seven years of trade talks ending in 1994, the so-called Uruguay Round (
乌拉圭回合谈判) finally gave birth to the WTO, complete with an effective system to settle disputes and to form new rules covering trade in services and intellectual property
    Even after seven years of talks and with 22,500 pages of agreements reached problems remained, especially in the difficult-to-deal-with areas of agriculture and services

31
What is the purpose of the WTO?
A
To encourage international trade to flow freely. BTo make sure that trade agreements are respected.
C
To settle any disputes                                 DAll of the above
32
According to the passage ,the GATT stopped working _______.
A
in 1948                                                 Bin 1994
C
after World War Ⅱ ended                        Dduring the seven years of the Uruguay Round talk
33.The WTO is better than the GATT in that_____

A
it can settle disputes in more areas of international trade
B
it enables its members to sign agreements more easily
C
it deals with problems in agriculture and services more effectively
D
it pays more attention to service and intellectual property
34.The word “drawbacks ”in Paragraph 4 means ______

A
Weak points              BStrong points          CImprovements               DChanges
35
According to the last two paragraphs ,which of the following statements is true?
A
The WTO is the world's most powerful economic organization
B
The GATT was founded in Uruguay in 1995
C
The WTO has an effective system to settle disputes and to form new rules
D
All the countries in the world are member nations of the WTO
Ⅳ .Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two items)
36
.情况,地位 ns                            37.星期三 nW                
38
.分解,解决 vtr                              39.昆虫 ni            
40
.高贵的,贵族的 an                           41.拒绝,驳回 vtr          
42
.服从,听从 vto                                         43.愿意的,乐意的 aw            
44
.无数的 an                                     45.捆扎 vtb_     
46
.地平线 nh                                      47.在更远处 prepb          
48
.折叠 vtf                                             49.集合 vta              
50
.反对,使相对 vto                            51.事件,比赛项目 ne        
52
.应当,应该 auxo                               53.题目,主题 nt        
54
.贴切的,有关的 ar                         55.雌的,女性的 af          
Ⅴ .Word Form( 10 points, 1 point for each item)
56.The governor's wife persuaded him_____ (not, accept) that man's money.
57
_____(lie ) under a tree ,Mary was thinking how to teach her daughter English effectively.
58.Promotion is not based on the ____(long) of employment only.
59.His _____(curious) about the earth led him to a great discovery.
60.Her compositions show that she is a very _____(imagine) child.
61.She spent____(little) time on writing than on other language skills.
62.Your hair needs____(cut )
It is too long.
63.The two cars collided with each other,___(cause) a traffic jam.
64.I have no choice but _____(wait).
65.He would like to have the work _____(do) perfectly.
Ⅵ .Translation from Chinese into English(15 points, 3 points for each item)
66
.茶和咖啡,你比较喜欢哪一种?
67
.昨天要不是生病,她就来了。
68
.我们的工作与计算机有很大的关系。
69
.他是个诚实的人,对此我们大家一直深信不疑。
70
.汤姆被认为是我们当中学习成绩最好的人。
Ⅶ .Translation from English into Chinese (15 points)
    It is said that although water is essential for life, it costs nothing .On the other hand ,diamonds cost a lot, yet they are essential for nothing .The world has changed greatly since an 18th century economist made the remark.
   
What was true over 200 years ago is certainly no longer true nowIn many countries, people pay as much for water in their homes as they do for electricity.
    We neglect water when we have plenty ----unless there are floods, of course .Once there is a threat to our water supply, however, water can quickly become the only thing that matters. We know only too well that without water, there can be no life.
    The situation is now becoming so bad that scientists feel it may be necessary to shock the world into saving water the way oil crises caused people to save energy resources in the 1970's.

20054月份自考英语()试卷

第一部分选择题(共50分)
Ⅰ.Vocabulary and Structure
10points1point for each)从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,填在该题后的括号内。

1.      or not you’re conscious of ityou’re constantly valuing items in dollars.
A. As                       B. Whether                   C. However                  D. If
2.Other people stop at each new word and look it       in the dictionary.
A. up                       B. down                       C.    back                            D. over
3.Many of the younger buyers say they are turned off by the poor       of modern goods.
A. security                B. quantity                    C. safety                      D. quality
4.In one type of laboratory test all the variables       one are controlled.
A. by                       B. and                          C. but                          D. or
5.       when you go through the mental exercises to come up with a tentative definition should you open the dictionary to see if you
re right.
A. Simply                 B. Precisely                  C. Only                       D. Particularly
6.The satellite also demonstrated how it could provide help to people living in isolated areas where   

is difficult.
A. transportation              B. instruction                C. application               D. compensation
7.Their mother is busy       ready for work.
A. got                      B. gets                         C. to get                             D. getting
8.It was long supposed that the main difference between animals and plants was that the former could move about while the       could not.  
A. other                   B. latter                       C. another                    D. later
9.The moon merely       the light of the sun, like a huge mirror hung in the sky.

A. reflects                B. demonstrates            C. transmits                 D. launches
10.Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields find       difficult to succeed in language learning.
A.
which                 B. how                        C. that                         D. it
.Cloze Test10points, 1point for each)下列短文中有十个空格,每个空格有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,填在括号内。
    What happens when you get into an argument? Do you 11 your temper and storm out of the room
or do you give 12 ?If you have been on your feet all day cleaning the house 13 your husband gets home from work and immediately 14 his dinner, do you scream 15 himor do you go off and cry in the kitchen?

If you believe in the art of compromise(妥协), you’ll find a solution that 16 everybody. In this way, no one loses 17 and everyone keeps his high opinion 18 everyone else. So if you want both to be respected 19 to be happy, always keep in mind that it is 20 to negotiate a skilful compromise than to be an unpopular winner or a bad-tempered loser.

11.A. miss                       B. lose                          C. hold                  D. keep
12.A.up                           B. off                           C. in                            D. out

13.A.since                       B. for                           C. and                   D. if
14.A.demands                  B. demanding                C. to demand         D. demanded
15.A.in                            B. on                            C. for                    D. at
16.A.satisfy                            B. satisfies                    C. satisfying          D. satisfied
17.A.foot                         B. face                         C. heart                 D. hand
18.A.of                           B. in                             C. for                    D. out
19.A.or                           B. but                           C. and                   D. yet
20.A.happier                    B. kinder                      C. easier                D. better
.Reading Comprehension30 points, 2 points for each)从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案,填在该题后的括号内。
Passage One

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

People in cities all over the world shop in supermarkets. Who decides what you buy in the supermarkets? Do you decide? Does the supermarket decide?
    When you enter the supermarket, you see shelves full of food. You walk in the isles
(过道)between the shelves. You push a shopping cart and put your food in it.
    You probably hear slow music as you walk along the aisles; if you hear fast music, you walk quickly. The super-market plays slow music. You walk slowly and have more time to buy things. Maybe you go the meat department first. There is some meat on sale, and you want to find it. The manager of the supermarket knows where customers enter the meat department. The cheaper meat is at the end of the meat department, away from where the customers enter. You have to walk by all the expensive meat before you find the cheaper meat. Maybe you will buy some of the expensive meat instead of the meat on sale. The dairy
(乳制品)department sells milk and milk products such as butter and cheese. Many customers like milk that has only a little butterfat in it. One store has three different containers of low fat milk. One says“1percent1%”fat on the container. The second says“99percent99%fat free”. The third says “Low Fat” in big letters and 1%”in small letters. As you can see, all the milk as the same amount of fat. The milk is all the same. The amount of milk in each container is also the same. However in this store the three containers of milk dont cost the same. Maybe the customer will buy the milk that cost the most.
21.This passage mainly discusses       .
A. why people in cities shop in supermarkets
B. what influences people s shopping in supermarkets
C. what people usually buy in supermarkets
D. how music is related to people
s shopping in supermarkets
22.The supermarket plays slow music so that        .
A. it may attract more customers                          B. it may seem more like a home
C. customers will feel more comfortable                D. customers will possibly buy more
23.The manager knows       .
A. which customers like low fat milk                            B. which customers like slow music
C. where customers enter the meat department              D. where customers enter the dairy department
24.The cheaper meat is put at the end of the meat department because       .
A. the supermarket wants to sell more of the expensive meat
B. customers can be easily reminded before they leave
C. the supermarket intends to sell it at its original price
D. customers can be easily enabled to make a comparison
25.The author implies that customers tend to believe that       .
A. the more expensive the milk, the better its quality
B. the bigger the container, the better the milk in it
C. the less fat the milk contains, the cheaper it costs
D. the more words there are on the container, the less fat the milk in it contains
Passage Two

Questions26 to30 are based on the following passage.

All of us rely on what we see. We say to ourselves, “I know, was there; I saw it happen.” And that seems to settle the matter. Or does it? Can we really trust the evidence of our eyes? Take competitive sports. Fans who see the same game will not agree with each other and will the disagree with the referee(裁 判).“He was out of bounds when he caught the pass,” says one fan. Says another“You are crazy. I saw it with my own eyes. He was five feet in bounds. You must be blind.” The referee rules that the receiver did step out of bounds. But thousands of fans are still not convinced--because they were there!

It’s the same story in the courtroom. Trial procedure depends on witnesses giving sworn testimony. But just how reliable is the testimony of a person who reports what he has seen? In a recent studyten thousand witnesses were asked to describe the man they saw commit a crime. The study reveals that, on the average, the witnesses overestimated the man s height by five inches, his age by eight years, and gave the wrong hair color in83percent of the cases. These witnesses didn’t play tricks on them!

What can we do to keep error to a minimum? First of all, don’t let your emotions interfere with your vision. Don’t see something because you want to see it. Secondly, try to stay relaxed. If you are tense, you are likely to see red when the color is blue. And finally, it helps to make notes of what you see. Don’t rely on your memory alone. Take pictures, make  recordings, and use any other aid to reduce distortion(歪曲).
26.The main idea of this passage is that       .
 A. all of us rely on what we see                                  B. we can t completely trust what we see
 C. sworn eyewitnesses are unreliable                    D. fans usually disagree with the referee
 27.The passage suggests that fans at sport events.
 A. show no respect for the truth                          B. lie about what they see
 C. are controlled by emotion                                D. have no faith in the referee
 28.Statistical studies show that        .
 A. courtroom testimony only confuses the judge    B. courtroom testimony is often unreliable
 C. eyewitnesses are remarkably accurate                     D. eyewitnesses tend to conceal what they see
29.The word “them”
Paragraph3refers to        .
 A. the judges and the trial procedure                            B. the witnesses and their testimony
 C.83 percent of the cases                                    D. the height, age and hair color of the criminal
30.In order to keep error to a minimum, we are advised to        .
 A. separate our emotions from what we see          B. improve our memory of what we see
 C. get a better look at what we are interested in     D. concentrate on what makes us relaxed
Passage Three

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.  
    When children learn a language, they learn the grammar as well as the words or vocabulary. No one teaches them; children just “pick them up”.  Before babies begin to produce words, they produce sounds. Some of these sounds will remain if they occur in the language being acquired, and others will disappear. This is called the “babbling
(牙牙学语)stage”.
    A child does not learn the language “all at once”. The child’s first utterances
(言语)are one-word sentences. After a few months, the two-word stage arises. During this stage, the child puts two words together. These two-word sentences have definite patterns and express grammatical and meaningful relationships.
    Still later, in the telegraphic stage, the child will produce longer sentences. These longer sentences are mainly made up of  content words. The child s early grammar lacks many of the rules of the adult grammar, but eventually it will become mature.
    All normal children everywhere learn language. This ability  is not dependent on race
(种族), social class, geography, or even intelligence. This ability is uniquely human.
31. This passage is mainly about       .
A. the difference between a child s language and an adult s    B. ways of teaching babies to talk
C. children s learning of the mother language          D. the importance of learning foreign languages
32.The phrase “pick them up”
Line2Paragraph1means “       ”.
A. raise them from the ground                              B. learn them without much effort
C. use hands to help carry them                                   D. study very hard and remember them
33.During the “babbling stage”, babies       .
A. can only produce sounds                                 B. learn to walk steadily
C. can understand people’s talk                             D. begin to produce two-word sentences
34.The two-word sentences produced by babies        .
A. are simpler than those produced in the “babbling stage”
B. are more difficult than those produced in the telegraphic stage
C. are strictly grammatical
D. are meaningful and have function
35.Any child can learn language as long as he is       .
A. well-educated                     B. clever enough           C. unique               D. physically normal
第二部分 非选择题(共50分)
.Word Spelling10 points, 1 point for two words)将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个单词的词类、首字母及字母数目均已给出。
36.
丑陋的a. u_ _ _                                      37.命令n. o_ _ _ _
38.
狭窄的a. n_ _ _ _ _                                39.收入 n. i_ _ _ _ _
40.
借用 v. b_ _ _ _ _                                           41.秋天 n. a_ _ _ _ _
42.
总统n. p_ __ _ _ _ _ _                                   43.秘密的 a. s_ _ _ _ _
44.
分享v. s_ _ _ _                                       45.忧虑 n. w_ _ _ _
46
.动物 n. z_ _                                        47.准备 v. p_ _ _ _ _ _  
48.
营养品 n. n_ _ _ _ _ _ _                          49.对象 n. o_ _ _ _ _  
50.
欠(债等) v. o_ _                                 51.暂停 n. p_ _ _ _  
52.
山峰 n. p_ _ _                                         53.政党 n. p_ _ _ _  
54.
安静的 a. q_ _ _ _                                          55.流行的 a. p_ _ _ _ _ _
Ⅴ.Word Form
10 points, 1 point for each)将括号中的各词变为适当的形式填入空格。
56.These guidelines represent what a majority of people        
consideracceptable.
57.We can tell from fossil evidence in rocks that many living species           
becomeextinct over the millions of years since life began.
58.More and more Americans nowadays are having panic attacks like the one       
experienceby Anne Peters.
59.Among children between six and fourteen years old, the older the child,     
fewglass balls he will take.
60.      (Give) the amount of time that children watch television, it has become one of the most powerful models they  want to follow.
61.Most public speakers are in fact nervous
but a good speaker learns to hide this by       give offsignals of confidence.
62.Has anyone you know ever driven        
drink?
63.If A appears
       (move) at a steady speed relative to B, we cannot know for sure if it is A that is really moving.
64.Red        
usefor signs of dangersuch as STOP signs and fire engines.
65.Women       (be) the “weaker” and “dependent” sex, it is only natural that they should cry in certain emotional situations.
Ⅵ.C-E Translation
15 points, 3 points for each)将下列各句译成英  语。
66.
地震给这个地区造成了巨大损失。
67.
毫无疑问,身体健康有助于你享受生活。
68.
与其说他是个作家,不如说他是个科学家。
 69.
我们能肯定的只是会议已经被取消了。
 70.
没有空气的地方,就没有声音。
 
.E-C Translation15points)将下列短文译成汉语。
  
 What will man be like in the future— in 5,000 or even 50,000 years from now? We can only make a guess, of course, but we can be sure that he will be different from what he is today. For man is slowly changing all the time.

Let us take an obvious example. Man, even five hundred years ago, was shorter than he is today. Now, on average, men are about three inches taller. Five hundred years is a relatively short period of time, so we may assume that man will continue to grow taller.
    Nowadays our eyes are in constant use. In fact, we use them so much that very often they become weaker and we have to wear glasses. But over a very long period of time it is likely that man’s eyes will grow stronger.


                     
20064月自学考试英语(一)试卷
第一部分 选择题(共50分)
I. Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1point for each)
从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。
1. ______ the sun, the moon looks the biggest object in the sky.
A. Except for         B. Besides                     C. Except                            D. Other than
2. When they join the work force, their employers and associates alike will soon realize that the behavior of these rude young people is closer to ______ of animals than civilized individuals.
A. those                B. which                      C. what                        D. that
3. Although there is no doubt that _____ people benefit from heart surgery, critics of our health-care systems point out that the emphasis on the surgical treatment of the disease has three clear disadvantages.
A. a great deal of    B. a great amount of      C. a great number of      D. the number of
4. If I ______ a little earlier, I would have caught the train.
A. left                          B. would leave              C. leave                        D. had left
5. _______ their common aim may seem good, people probably do not realize that dieting can do harm to their health.
A. As                           B. Though                    C. If                                   D. Since
6. We should be ______ of the views of others, even if we disagree with them.
A. kind                  B. considerate               C. tolerant                    D. capable
7. Rude people are those whose behavior shows little respect for the rules that the majority _____.
A. have                 B. own                         C. follow                      D. like
8. There is great pleasure in watching wildlife in natural or near-natural environments, and tourism can _____ the income of countries.
A. add to               B. take to                      C. keep to                     D. see to
9. He helped me and I hope I can do something for him ______.
A. in turn               B. for return                 C. by turn                     D. in return
10. We can come to the _____ that the more we practice, the more skillful we will be.
A. tradition                   B. generation                 C. conclusion                D. fact
II. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)
下列短文中有十个空格,每个空格有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。
    “Family” – the word had different meanings for different people, and even the dictionary gives us several definitions: “a group of people related __11__ blood or marriage,” “two adults and their children,” “all those people __12__ from a common ancestor,” “a household,” and so on. Some people think of a family __13__ a mother, a father, and their children; others include grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. For __14__ of us, family means the group of relatives __15 __ far away from home. For others, having a __16__ simply means having children. Some families have long histories, __17__ others know very little about their ancestors. No__18__ if it is young or old, large or small, traditional or modern, every family has a sense of what a family is. It is that feeling of __19__, of love and security __20__ comes from living together, helping and sharing.
11. A. to                B. for                           C. after                        D. by
12. A. derived        B. separated                  C. distinguished             D. descended
13. A. by               B. as                            C. from                        D. for
14. A. some                  B. other                        C. most                        D. one
15. A. live                     B. living                        C. lived                        D. to live
16. A. parent          B. relative                     C. family                      D. house
17. A. while           B. why                         C. where                      D. which
18. A. problem              B. thing                        C. matter                      D. question
19. A. belong         B. belonging                  C. belonged                  D. having belonged
20. A. what                  B. this                          C. that                          D. such
III.. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)
从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题卡上将相应的字母涂黑。
Passage One
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
    My generation --- the generation that came of age in the 1950s and 1960s --- may be the last one to know the feeling of being surrounded by millions of words that were the products of years of work by authors famous and obscure. For now we are seeing a subtle but unmistakable turning away from such things. The houses of America, I fear, may soon include no room for libraries. The hardcover book --- that symbol of the permanence of thought, the handing down of wisdom from one age to the next ---- may be a new addition to our list of endangered species.
    I have a friend who runs a bookstore in a Midwestern college town. He has found that he can not sell hardcover books; paperback books are his stock in trade, and even those are a disappointment to him. “You know how we used to see people carrying around book bags?” he tells me. “Well, now I look out of the window of my shop, and all I see are students carrying boxes from the record stores. The students aren’t reading any more. They’re listening to albums(
唱片集).”
    And indeed he may be right. Stories of problems young people have with reading are not new, but the trend seems to be worsening. Recently the president of a university in New York said that 10 percent of the freshmen (
大学一年级学生) at this university could read no better than the average eighth grader. There is an even more worrying aspect to it: of those college freshmen whose reading skills were equivalent to the sixth-to-eighth-grade level, the president reported that many had ranked in the top half of their high-school classes.
21. The underlined word “obscure” (Paragraph 1) most probably means ____.
A. not well-paid                    B. not well-made           C. not well-trained         D. not well-known
22. The hardcover book may become an endangered species because _______.
A. hardcover books are scarcer today                 B. people are tired of hardcover books
C. the habit of reading books is dying out                   D. the permanence of thought is challenged
23. The writer mentions his friend’s bookstore to show that _______.
A. there is a gradual lack of interest in serious reading
B. there is a subtle increase in the popularity of music
C. hardcover books greatly affect his friend’s business
D. paperback books are a disappointment to his friend
24. As a result of the worsening trend of turning away from reading ____.
A. many college students enjoy listening to albums
B. students fail to read as well as they are required to
C. many high school students fail to enter universities
D. high-school students have become the best readers
25. The passage is mainly about _______.
A. the changes in people’s attitude towards reading
B. the troubles encountered by the owner of a bookstore
C. the trend of reading in the 1950s and 1960s
D. the problems that college students have with reading
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
    The first astronaut (
航天员) to walk in space, Leonov, and his companion, Belaiev, began making preparations for the walk as soon as their spaceship was launched. The spaceship was equipped with a double door, which was fitted with a bellows () between the ship and the outside. This made it possible for the astronaut, in his space suit with oxygen supply, to go first from the air-filled ship to the bellows. Then the air was let out of the bellows, and while the man stepped outside, the air inside the ship remained at normal pressure. If the door had opened directly into space, the air in the ship would have rushed out and been lost when the door opened.
    Leonov and Balaiev practiced testing the doors several times after they had begun moving around the earth. When the time came for Leonov to go out, his companion helped him attach the cable that was to keep him from floating away from the ship. Then Leonov entered the bellows, and the door closed behind him. When there was no air left in the bellows, the outer door opened and Leonov could see the blackness of space and the blinding light of the sun.
    If the sky appears blue to us on earth, it is because the earth’s atmosphere absorbs a certain number of blue rays of sunlight. Out where there is no air, this phenomenon does not take place. On the earth, our atmosphere spreads light so that, when the sun is up, light seems to be everywhere. However, in the airless outer space, strong lights, such as the sun, exist side by side with a dark similar to the blackest night. The absence of air also explains why the stars do not seem to twinkle (
闪烁) in space, as they do from the earth.
26. The spaceship was furnished with a bellows in order to ________.
A. keep air in the ship when its door was opened
B. prevent the spaceship from floating in space
C. make it possible for the astronauts to walk in space
D. provide the astronauts with air under normal pressure
27. Immediately before going out of the spaceship, the astronauts have to ______.
A. check the spaceship doors                                   B. walk through the bellows
C. attach each other with a cable                        D. do some warm-up exercises
28. When he stepped out of the spaceship, Leonov saw ______.
A. black space without light                               B. the sun first and then darkness
C. darkness turning into blinding light                 D. darkness and light at the same time
29. During the day people can see light everywhere, because when the sun is up ______.
A. it gives off light                                            B. it absorbs light
C. the earth’s atmosphere gives off light                    D. the earth’s atmosphere absorbs sunlight
30. In outer space, the absence of air is responsible for ______.
A. the brightness of space                                        B. the brightness of stars
C. the coexistence of stars and stronger lights            D. the coexistence of brightness and darkness
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
    Away at medical school, 23-year-old Swati enjoyed herself in her new-found freedom. She drank and experimented with drugs. When her grades got worse, her father immediately hired a private eye to investigate her. Before long, her parents had a detailed report. “I was worried,” says Swati’s mother. “We’re a modern family but still traditional. We worried about her reputation (
名声) – our reputation.”
    More and more Indian parents have begun turning to private detectives (
侦探) to follow their children. Indeed, India’s first MTV generation is taking full advantage of the explosion of parties and bars that have emerged over the past decade as the country has opened up. “We see upper-and middle-class parents increasingly being deceived and cheated by their children,” says Brinda Adige, a researcher at the Child Development Center.
    That’s good news for India’s private-detective industry. So far, there are about 100 firms throughout the nation, mostly in the big cities. Each firm now handles as many as a dozen cases every month. Detective reports don’t come cheap; $1,000 a week is standard. “It’s a lot in India,” says a detective. “But when I point out what they spend on their child’s education and marriage, they accept it’s small price to pay to protect their investment.”
    The choice is a risky one. Most private detectives warn parents against revealing that they have monitored their children. Some kids find out anyway – either from parents unable to contain their rage or through the detectives’ foolishness. “It’s a very dangerous strategy,” says Adige. “It’s a permanent damage to trust by the parents. There’s no way back once the child knows their parents have paid someone to follow them.”
    But it can also be surprisingly effective. Swati began behaving better after she was challenged by her anxious parents.
31. Swati’s parents hired a private detective because      .
A. she drank a lot   B. she used drugs          C. her health was poor          D. her studies suffered
32. We learn from the passage that the children being followed by detectives are mainly from      .
A. rich families              B. small families            C. well-known families         D. single-parent families
33. The underlined phrase “their investment” (Para. 3) refers to the money      .
A. they hope to get back from their child’s school      B. they are going to leave to their child after death
C. they pay for their child’s education and marriage    D. they pay a private detective to follow their child
34. Hiring a private detective is a risky strategy in that it can do harm to       .
A. the family investment                                    B. the family relationship
C. the child’s reputation                                    D. the child’s happiness
35. The passage is mainly about       .
A. a successful approach to dealing with dishonest children
B. a new way of Indian parents to discipline their children
C. why Indian children behave against their parents’ wishes
D. why hiring a private detective is both risky and effective.
第二部分 非选择题材(共50分)
IV. Word Spelling (10 points, 1point for two words)
将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个单词的词类、首字母及字母数目均已给出。
36. n.
进步  p_ _ _ _ _ _ _                              37. v. 坚持  i_ _ _ _ _
38. adj.
睡着的 a_ _ _ _ _                               39. n. 镜子  m_ _ _ _ _
40. adj.
直接的d_ _ _ _ _                                       41. v. 提供 p_ _ _ _ _ _
42. n.
洪水 f_ _ _ _                                              43. v. 探险 e_ _ _ _ _ _
44. n.
压力 p_ _ _ _ _ _ _                                      45. adj. 冷漠的 i_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
46. n.
话题 t_ _ _ _                                               47. v. 争吵 d_ _ _ _ _ _
48. adj.
相像的 a_ _ _ _                                        49. n. 气候 c_ _ _ _ _ _
50. adj.
无止境的 e_ _ _ _ _ _                                51. n. 欧洲人 E_ _ _ _ _ _ _
52. n.
享受 e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                             53. v. 适应 a_ _ _ _
54. num.
十四 f_ _ _ _ _ _ _                                  55. adj. 安全的 s_ _ _
V. Word Form (10 points, 1point for each)
将括号中的各词变为适当的形式填入空格
56. Americans often protest that the government ________(use) their tax dollars in the wrong way.
57. Curiously enough, sleepwalkers have an unusual way of _______ (avoid) their own traps when they sleepwalk.
58. Experiments have to ________ (make) under carefully controlled conditions.
59. You can build your vocabulary without ________ (use) a dictionary each time.
60. On the average, males score ________(high) than females on tests that measure mathematical reasoning, mechanical ability, and problem-solving skills.
61. Such programmes could teach the local people how to select trees worth exporting and to cut only those trees down while ______ (leave) the rest.
62. Successful language learners find it easy ________ (practice) using the language regularly because they want to learn with it.
63. How ______ (surprise) the people who thought tomatoes poisonous would be if they could know that millions of pounds of tomatoes were supplied to soldiers overseas during World War II.
64. If he accepts the job, he ________ (get) more money right away.
65. It is reported that there are at least three signs that indicate a person _______ (suffer) from a panic attack rather than a heart attack.
VI. C-E Translation (15 points, 3 points for each)
将下列各句译成英语。
66
.大西洋有那么多水,很难想象出有多少。
67
.科学家们知道极度高温和高压的共同作用把碳(carbon)变成钻石。
68
.买东西的人心底里总是暗自希望找到价值高而又便宜的东西。
69
.自然环境正在急剧变化的例子不胜枚举。
70
.你必须认识到肢体语言与文化密切相连。
VII. E-C Translation (15 points)
将下列短文译成汉语。
71
Organization also makes a difference in our ability to remember. How useful would a library be if the books were kept in random order? Material that is organized is better remembered than jumbled information. One example of organization is chunking. Chunking consists of grouping separate bits of information. For example, the number 4671363 is more easily remembered if it is chunked as 467, 13 , 63. Categorizing is another means of organization. Suppose you are asked to remember the following list of words: man, bench, dog, desk, woman, horse, child, cat chair. Many people will group the words into similar categories and remember them as follows: man, woman, child; cat, dog, horse; bench, chair, desk. Needless to say, the second list can be remembered more easily than the first one.

2000-2006英语(一)参考答案及评分标准
2000(上)
I. Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each)
1. C    2. B        3. A        4. D        5. C        6. B        7. B        8. C        9. C        10. C
II. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)
11.D   12.C              13.A              14.B        15.C              16.B        17.D              18.C              19.A              20. A
III. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)
21.C   22.A              23.B        24.A              25.D              26.C              27.A              28.C              29.B        30.B
31.C   32.C              33.D              34.B        35.C
IV. Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)
36.square          37.precious            38.pocket              39.pretend      40.various             41.challenge
42.perfect          43.imagine             44.contain      45.heart          46.diameter            47.beach
48.honest          49.insist                50.judge         51.least          52.message           53.omit
54.lawyer          55.operate
[
评分标准]IV部分每21分,共10分。错1题不扣分,错3题扣1分,错5题扣2分,依此类推。多写、少写或错写一个或一个以上的字母均为错。
Word Form (10 points, 1 point for each)
56.is                 57.brought             58.be understood           59.to be mailed              60.seeing
61.accepted              62. worrying          63.has made                 64.better                       65.did not have
[
评分标准]V部分每题1分, 10分。语法错或拼写错均不给分。
VI. Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each)
66. It is more difficult for beginners to think in English than to speak it.
67. It was said that some primitive people who ate deer could run as fast as a deer.
68. His daughter would not have taken apart his watch if he had come home a little earlier yesterday.
69. It is not easy to find students who share you views.
70. How many of your friends have never broken the law?
[
评分标准]VI 部分每句3句,共15分。评分原则为:
[评分参考]
1)主要语法错误(如动词时态、语态、虚拟语气、主谓一致、否定、疑问以及其他句型错误)或影响基本句意的重要用词错误扣1分。
2)非基本语法错误(如介词、代词、冠词、大写、标点等错误)以及不影响基本句意的用词错误每两处扣1分。
3)拼写错误每两处扣1分。拼写错误本大题总扣分不超过3分。
4)如所用句型与答案不一致,只要语言和意义正确,均应给分。
VII
Translation from English into Chinese (15 points)
   
作为我们食物来源的许多动物和植物,无需人的帮助也能自行繁殖。例如鱼按照自己生活方式生长和繁殖,所谓人类生产者只是用渔网和渔杆将鱼从水中捕捞上来而已。
   
但是在我们这个专业化了的世界里,我们不可能总让食物以自己的方式自然增长。较少数量的人力要负责生产大量的食物。为了有成效地履行这一职责,他们有必要在相当密集的地区饲养家畜和种植农作物。
   
养鱼,饲养家畜以及种水果、蔬菜和粮食都是人们更普遍熟悉的食品生产业中的一部分。
[
评分标准]VII部分共15分。评分原则为:
短文英译汉的评分标准按译文质量分为15-13分、12-10分、9-7分、6-4分和3-1分五个档次。各档次标准如下:
115-13分。全文翻译正确或基本正确,汉语表达通顺。
212-10分。全文主要内容翻译正确或基本正确,汉语表达通顺,但有少数语句翻译错误。
39-7分。全文不少于一半的内容翻译基本正确,汉语表达尚通顺,有一些语句翻译错误。
46-4分。少部分内容翻译基本正确,有较多的语句翻译错误。
53-1分。仅译对个别句子。
6)全文译错或只译出零星单词或全文未译,不给分。
7)缺译的语句按完全译错处理。
根据以上评分档次描述,评分可在相应的档次内上下浮动。

2000(下)

I. Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each )

1.A  2.B         3.A         4.C         5.C         6.B         7.D         8.A         9.C         10.B

II. CLOZE test (10 points, 1 point for each)

11.B 12.C              13.A              14.D              15.A              16.C              17.D              18.C              19.C              20.A

III. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)

21.D 22.A 23.C 24.C 25.C 26.A 27.B 28.B 29.C 30.A 31.D 32.D 33.B 34.C 35.A

IV. Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)

36. tiny   37. profession        38. secret                     39. respect            40. invite        41. despair

42. courage    43. criminal           44. expensive         45. quarrel             46. hurry       47. sufficient

48. cruel  49. wonder            50. flat                  51. failure              52. remove     53. pause

54. permit       55. museum

V. Word Form (10 points, 1 point for each)

56.are called   57.transmitting       58.to discuss                59.less           60.unlocked    61.drank

62.be doing            63.had left             64.extended                  65.haven't changed

VITranslation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each)

66Studies show that people who drink a lot are more likely to suffer from heart attacks.

67. Solutions to actual problems cannot be seen in advance.

68. You wouldn't have got into trouble if you had taken my advice.

69. Most single parents find it hard to take care of a family alone.

70. It is modern technology that leads us to success.

VIII. Translation from Engilsh into Chinese (15 points)

我们工作或娱乐时,就会消耗能量。这种能量可能是体力的或脑力的。也可能是两者兼有。如果我们工作或娱乐的时间过长,就会感到疲劳,而且希望停下来休息或改做其它的事情。如果我们不停止,效率就会变得越来越低。

如果我们让某个人做一样工作并让他不停地干下去不让他休息,最后他就会崩溃而无法继续下去。

如果在工作中加入休息或者变换活动形式,他持续工作的时间就会长得多。因此,效率看起来主要是工作和休息时间的分配问题在平常生活中,我们白天工作,晚上休息,年年如此。

 

2001年(上)

I. 1.A             2.C         3.C         4.D         5.B         6.B         7.A         8.D         9.D         10.B

II. 11.B   12.D              13.A              14.A              15.B        16.B        17.C              18.D              19.C              20.B

III. 21.B 22.C 23.D 24.A 25.A 26.C 27.B 28.D 29.B 30.A 31.A 32.C 33.C 34.B 35.D

IV. 36.widespread     37.trade          38.0ccupy             39.urban         40.average             41.quantity

42.decorate            43.precise       44.budget                     45.topic          46.stimulate           47.honest

48.switch               49.famous      50.independent       51.mix           52.persuade           53.pipe

54.praise                55.third

V. 56.carefully           57.are priced   58.facing               59.was based  60.had taken          61.feet

62.transmitted/ to be transmitted              63.would have arrived           64.being treated      65.earliest

VI. 66.It was lightning that caused the forest fire last year.

67. Air pollution endangers people's health directly.

68. The experts have been discussing this problem all the morning.

69. Many Americans complain that the government spends too much money on those programs.

70. Curiosity and imagination are often viewed as the key to success.

VII. 很多美国人感到沉默很不舒服,他们会侃侃而谈,不让谈话中断,即使只有片刻停止也非所愿,假如你久久一言不发,美国人会设法让你加入谈话。他们也许会问你身体是否舒服,或者是否需要他们帮忙。但是,如果美国人不同意你的意见,他们会默不做声。这样做未必表示他们同意你的意见,常常只表示他们认为继续同你辩论下去不合礼仪。

2001年(下)
. Vocabulary and structure
1.D   2.C    3.C   4.A  5.D    6.B   7.B   8.D  9.C   10.A
. Cloze Test
11.B  12.A  13.C  14.C  15.A  16.D  17.C  18.B  19.D  20.B
. Reading Comprehension
21.B  22.A  23.A  24.B  25.D  26.B  27.D  28.D  29.C  30.A 31.B  32.D  33.A  34.A 35.C
. Word Spelling
36. seller     37. abstract  38. formal   39. deliver     40. supreme  41. evidence  42. perfect
43. frequently  44. adult   45. pretend   46. agricultural  47. remote   48. rare    49. volcano
50. exist      51. energy   52. average  53. restrict    54. familiar   55. complain
. Word Form
56. reducing  57. printed  58. are asked  59. known  60. working  61. was based  62. spoken
63. (should) be held 64. had been 65. endanger
. C-E Translation
66. She has a friend who used to take/use drugs. (Her friend used to take/use drugs.)
67. It is these children that (who) need psychological treatment.
68. Studies show that men are more likely to suffer from heart attacks than women.
69. Can you depend entirely on the agent when you buy insurance?
70. I don't think she will buy such things as the used clothing and empty bottles.
. E-C Translation
   
游客在美国的多数大城市,几乎可以找到各种类型的餐馆。电话簿以名称、所在城区位置或食物种类,列出每个城市的餐馆名称。大城市的餐馆价格差别很大。许多餐馆在橱窗里张贴菜单,让你进去之前就能对食物的价格和种类有所了解。假如没有贴出菜单,而你又不知道那地方的饭菜贵到什么程度,那么进去之后,可以先要菜单来看,再就坐,要不然就直接问价格高低。光看餐馆的外表,可能产生误导──外表普通的小餐馆,也许实际上极贵;外表看来昂贵的大餐馆,价钱可能很公道。
   
你在酒吧或咖啡馆,大概五美元或略多一点就可以吃一顿,但在多数城市的餐馆就餐,一个人大概要花2030美元,而且饮料还要另算。

2002
(上)

Ⅰ.Vocabulary and structure (10 points, 1 point for each)
1.D 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.D 6.D 7.A 8.C 9.B 10.D
Ⅱ.Cloze Test (10 points,1 point for each)
11.A 12.B 13.A 14.C 15.D16.B 17.C 18.D 19.A 20.B
Ⅲ.Reading Comprehension (30 points,2 points for each)
21.B 22.C 23.A 24.A 25.B 26.D 27.A 28.C 29.D 30.B31.C 32.C 33.B 34.D 35.A
Ⅳ.Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)
36.introduce      37.hesitate     38.equipment        39.cycle               40.yellow       41.attract
42.frequently     43.shut          44.progress    45.request      46.possess     47.passive
48.neat             49.rock         50.eventually   51.wisdom     52.invent        53.remote
54.theory           55.wheel
Ⅴ.Word From (10 points, 1 point for each)
56. married 57.visit    58.would have been understood    59.being punished   60.are blown   61.discovery
62.known   63.will have been    64.smiling       65.to save
Ⅵ.C-E Translation (15 points, 3 points for each)
66.How do you plan to deal with this problem?
67.Whether or not we will go out tomorrow depends on the weather.
68.One reason why we are unwilling to discuss insurance is that it is very expensive.
69.Without your help we could not have finished the task yesterday.
70.It is said that in some single parent families children live a miserable life.
Ⅶ.E-C Translation (15 points)
   
许多人认为美国儿童的健康状况不良。事实上,5岁至8岁的儿童中已有40%属于不健康之列。例如,很多儿童过于肥胖,血压偏高。医生相信这种状况是不爱运动的结果。
   
在世界很多国家,所有在校学生每天必须锻炼一个小时。这些活动可以很简单,如跑啊、跳啊。医生认为我们小时候养成的习惯更有可能保持一生。学校是养成这些习惯的最佳场所。定期参加锻炼的、活泼健康的儿童才能成长为积极、健康的成年人。
2002年(下)
I. Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each)
1.B 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. D 6. A 7. D 8. B 9. D 10. B
II. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)
11.D 12.A 13.C 14.A 15.C 16.B 17.D 18.D 19.B 20. C
III. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)
21.C 22.D 23.B 24.C 25.A 26.D 27.C 28.A 29.A 30.D 31.B 32. D 33. B 34. C 35. B
IV. Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)
36.tribe      37.engine        38.forty          39.property            40.divorce      41.square              42.election
43.neuclear 44.orbit          45.typical              46.organ                47.scientific    48.stimulate    49.contract
50.religion  51.breathe      52.guess         53.frequently         54.smoke              55.literature
V. Word Form (10 points, 1 point for each)
56.were discovered          57.run            58.grouping    59.to save              60.freedom     61.harmful
62.dressed                63.be seen             64.to be done         65.freezed
VI. Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each)
66.If you compare this figure with that one, you’ll find them unequal.
67.It was this method she employed that day to hide her true feeling.
68.Many sounds have meaning, but they are not words.
69.Can you find reasonable explanation for these phenomena?
70.His silence suggested he was not interested in this question.
VII
Translation from English into Chinese (15 points)
   
年轻人开始自谋生计的时候,就摆脱了学校和父母的约束;但同时,他也不得不承担责任。他不能再指望别人为他买食物、服装和房屋。他要想过得舒服,就必须工作。他要是象小时候那样,大部分时间用来玩耍,那么他就会挨饿。他要是象从前违背父母的规定那样违犯社会的法律,就有可能进监狱。但是,如果他努力工作,不惹麻烦,身体健康,就能够开心地看到自己在工作上稳步取得进步,而且还确立了自己在社会上的地位。

2003年(上)
Ⅰ. Vocabulary and Structure
1
. D.  2.B         3.C.      4.D.        5.A.        6.C.        7. A.              8.C.        9. D.              10.B.
Ⅱ. Cloze Test

11.C    12.A              13.D              14.C.      15.A
.     16.B.     17.C.      18.D.      19. A. 20.B.
Ⅲ.Reading Comprehension
21. D  22.C.      23.C.      24.D.      25.B.       26. A.      27. C.     28.D.      29 D.      30.B.
31. C. 32.D.      33 A.       34.B.       35.A.

Ⅳ. Word Spelling
36.praise           37.rubber              38.surface      39.thick          40.steam        41.power        42.noise
43.ninth             44.loud           45.method      46.shame        47.tension       48.illegal         49 .luck  
50.middle   51.serious       52.wealth              53.shallow      54.signal                55.victory
Ⅴ. Word Form

56.has        57.became             58 .have begun              59.to support         60.being discovered
61.disturbed              62.talking              63.is practiced              64.better         65.could not have
Ⅵ. Translation from Chinese into English
66.It is known that the Atlantic Ocean is only half as big as the Pacific.
67.People may watch any movie they want on television.
68.How much money have you spent on insurance in the past few years?
69.In order not to be misunderstood, you should realize that body language is very much tied to culture.
70.It was not until the 14th century that more accurate maps began to appear.
Ⅶ. Translation from English into Chinese
    
人体所需食物的量用该食物含有的能量,即卡路里,测量;而食物的质量则取决于该食物所含的营养物。营养物是食物中人体需要的物质。你可以消耗足够的软饮料、面包和马铃薯以提供足够的卡路里来满足你能量的需要。但这些食物不能提供人体正常活动所必需的全部营养物。
   
据信人体需要45种营养物。一份良好的配餐必须包含数量不等的第一种营养物。每一种营养物负责完成某一特定的人体功能。

2003()
I. Vocabulary and Structure (10 points, 1 point for each)

1.B            2. A        3. C        4. D        5. A        6. C        7. B        8. C        9. C        10. B

II. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each)

11.D   12.A              13.A              14.B        15.C              16.B        17.C              18.A              19.A              20. D

III. Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each)

21.D   22.C              23.D              24.B        25.A              26.D              27.C              28.B        29.B        30.D

31.C   32.D              33.B        34.C              35.B

IV. Word Spelling (10 points, 1 point for two words)

36.journey         37.confirm            38.abroad              39.debt           40.increase            41.effort

42.hesitate         43.basic                44.luxury        45.creative      46.global               47.output

48.vital              49.found               50.scarcely     51.modify       52.provided           53.rough

54.natural          55.unite

V. Word Form (10 points, 1 point for each)

56.succeeds              57.would not be considered          58.work         59.has been reading              60.forming

61.Having sent   62.can’t have gone                      63.threatened  64.more frequently        65.be held

[评分标准]V部分每题1分,共10分。语法错或拼写错均不给分。

VI. Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each)

66. We disagreed whether his theory could stand the test.

67.In this sense, a bad thing might be turned to a good account.

68.Tom is not what he used to be.

69.This is why I agree to his plan.

70.This problem is so complicated that we will spend much time solving it.

VIITranslation from English into Chinese (15 points)

    购买新床垫的原因很多:结婚、搬家或仅仅是因为想要更多的睡眠空间。不管何种原因,最终的期望是要一晚上睡个安静的好觉。
    
然而,睡具的结构、坚固性、大小和价格各有不同,怎么决定哪个最适合你呢?制造商建议把床具作为长期投资。这意味着要仔细考虑你投资所得到的质量和舒适度。
   
如果你已经决定要买一个新床垫,那就尽量买最好的。价格是由床垫所用的材料、结构质量和大小决定的。这种投资花在你生活的三分之一的时间上,而且还可能对你另外三分之二的生活产生巨大的影响。
2004年(上)

IVocabulary and structure (10 points, 1 point for each item)
1
C 2B 3D 4D 5C6B 7B 8A 9B 10C
II
Cloze test (10 points, 1 points for each item)
11
A 12C13C 14A15B 16D 17D 18D 19B 20A
III
Reading comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each item)
21.B 22.A 23.C 24.A 25.D 26.B 27.B 28.C 29.C 30.A 31.A 32.A 33.B 34.C 35.B
IV
Word spelling (10 points, 1 points for two items)
36. exact    37. need         38. drink        39. basic        40. belief        41. popular     42. build
43. movie   44. brain         45. profit        46. pause        47. major        48. short        49. short
50. busy     51. pollution    52. limit          53. happiness  54. manager    55. visit
V Word form (10 points for each item)
56
Frightened 57better 58is talking 59hoping 60were taken care of 61has increased 62includes 63producing 64will keep 65to learn
本大题共10小题,每小题1分,共10分。语法错或拼写错均不给分。大小写错误可以不扣分。
VI
Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each item)
66. It has not been decided who will chair the meeting tomorrow.
67. Showing respect for other’s opinions is also a scientific attitude.
68. Keeping healthy contributes to your enjoying life.
69. I knew why she was angry.
70. One should pay attention to his behavior in public.
VII. Translation from English into Chinese (15 points)
   
自从人类在地球上生活,就已经在利用各种形式的交流。一般而言,思想和情感以口语的形式来表达。存在语言障碍的时候,交流通过符号语言来完成,其中手势代表字母、词语和思想。旅游者、聋哑人必须借助于这一表达形式。许多这些文字符号非常生动精确,可以在国际上通用;而拼写出来的字却不行。
   
身体语言通过某些行为有意无意地传达概念和思想。眨眼可以用来表示打招呼或表明某人在开玩笑。点头意味着同意,而摇头表明作出消极反应。

2004年(下)
I
Vocabulary and structure (10 points, 1 point for each item)
1
C 2C 3D 4C 5A 6D 7B 8D 9A 10B
II
Cloze test (10 points, 1 points for each item)
11
C 12A 13C 14B 15D 16B 17A 18B 19A 20B
III
Reading comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each item)
21.B 22.A 23.C 24.A 25.B 26.C 27.A 28.D 29.B 30.A 31.D 32.B 33.A 34.A 35.C
IV
Word spelling (10 points, 1 points for two items)
36. status          37. Wednesday       38. resolve      39.insect        40. noble        41. reject 42. obey
43. willing         44. numerous         45. pack         46. horizon     47. beyond     48. fold
49. assemble      50. oppose             51. event        52. ought        53. topic         54. relevant
55. female

V Word form (10 points for each item)
56
not to accept      57lying       58length      59curiosity  60imaginative     61less

62cutting/ to be cut              63causing   64to wait    65done
VI
Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each item)
66
Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?/Which do you like better, tea of coffee?

67She would have come if she hadn't been ill yesterday.

68Our job has much to do with computers./ our job is closely related with computers.

69He is an honest person, which all of us have been sure of.

70Tom is thought / considered to be the who has one who has the best records among us.

VIITranslation from English into Chinese (15 points)
 
有人说,虽然水对生命至关重要,却一文不值。另一方面,钻石对生命无关紧要,却价值连城。自从18世纪经济学家得出这一结论,世界已发生了翻天覆地的变化。
  200
多年前的情形今天已经不复存在。在很多国家,人们在家里付的水费和付的电费一样多。
 
我们有许多水的时候就不会珍惜——当然发洪水时例外。一旦供水受到了威胁,水马上就会成为生死攸关的问题。我们十分清楚:没有水,生命将不再存在。
 
目前水的形式变的越来越糟。科学家认为现在没有必要警示人类让世界节约用水,就象20世纪70年代的石油危机让人们节约能源一样。

 

20054

.Vocabulary and Structure10points, 1point for each
1.B 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.C 6.A 7.D 8.B 9.A 10.D
.Cloze Test10 points, 1 point for each

11.B 12.C 13.C 14.A 15.D 16.B 17.B 18.A 19.C 20.D
.Reading Comprehension30points2points for each
21.B 22.D 23.C 24.A 25.A 26.B 27.C 28.B 29.D 30.A 31.C 32.B 33.A 34.D 35.D
.Word Spelling10 points1point for two words
36. ugly             37. order               38. narrow            39.income      40. borrow     41.autumn
42. president      43.secret               44. share               45. worry              46. zoo           47. prepare
48. nutrient        49. object                     50. owe                 51. pause        52. peak         53. party
54. quiet            55. popular

.Word Form10 points1point for each
56.consider  57.have become  58.experienced  59.the fewer  60.Given  61. giving off  62. drunk 63. to be moving  64.is used  65.being
.C-E Translation15 points
66.The earthquake has caused great damage to the region.
67. There is no doubt that fitness can help you enjoy your life.
68. He is not so much a writer as a scientist.
69. All we can be certain of/about is that the meeting has been cancelled.
70.Wher
there is no airthere is no sound.
.E-C Translation15points
   
五千年、甚至五万年以后人类将会是什么样子呢?当然,我们只能猜测,不过我们可以肯定的是人类与现在长得不一样,因为人类始终在慢慢地改变着。
   
举个明显的例子,五百年前的人比当今人长得矮。现在,人们平均高了三英寸。相对来说,五百年不算很长,因此我们可以推断:人类将继续长得更高。
   
如今,我们不停地使用着眼睛。事实上,由于使用过度,我们的视力变弱了,我们不得不佩戴镜了。但是,经过很长一段时间后,人类的视力可能会变强。


20064
I. Vocabulary and Structure (
本大题共10小题,每小题1分,共10)
1.A            2.D         3.C         4.D         5.B         6.C         7.C         8.A         9.D         10.C
II. Cloze Test (
本大题共10小题,每小题1分,共10)
11.D   12.D              13.B        14.A              15.B        16.C              17.A              18.C              19.B        20.C
III. Reading Comprehension (
本大题共15小题,每小题2分,共30)
21.D 22.C 23.A 24.B 25.A 26.A 27.B 28.D 29.C 30.D 31.D 32.A 33.C 34.B 35.B
IV. Word Spelling (
本大题共20小题,每两小题1分,共10)
36. progress      37. insist        38. asleep              39. mirror       40. direct        41. provide
42. flood           43.explore      44. pressure    45. indifferent        46. topic         47. dispute      48. alike
49. climate  50. endless     51. European  52. enjoyment        53. adapt        54. fourteen    55. safe
V. Word From (
本大题共10小题,每小题1分,共10)
56. uses                   57. avoiding    58. be made           59. using        60. higher       61. leaving
62. to practice           63. surprised   64. will get            65. is suffering
VI. C-E Translation (
本大题共5小题,每小题3分,共15)
66. There is so much water in the Atlantic that it is hard to imagine how much there is.
67. Scientists know that the combination of extreme heat and pressure changes carbon into diamonds.
68. In the back of their mind buyers always have the hope of finding something of great value for a bargain price.
69. A large number of examples can be given of the way in which natural environments are being changed.
70. You must realize that body language is very much tied to culture.
VII. E-C Translation (
本大题共15)
71.
做事有条理还能使我们的记忆力有所不同。书籍收藏杂乱无序的图书馆又有什么用?井然有序的材料比乱七八糟的信息更易被记住。分割成块就是有条理的一例。分割成块就是各个不同的点滴信息的分组。比如,数字4671363被分割组合成4671363就比较容易被记住。分类是有条理的另一个做法。如果要你记住下列单词:男人,长凳,狗,书桌,女人,马,小孩,猫,椅子,许多人会把这些词按相似之处进行如下归类并记忆:男人,女人,小孩;猫,狗,马;长凳,椅子,书桌。不用说,第二组词比第一组词更易于记忆。

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